Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) quantum defects in diamond are sensitive detectors of magnetic fields. Owing to their atomic size and optical readout capability, they have been used for magnetic resonance spectroscopy of nanoscale samples on diamond surfaces. Here, we present a protocol for fabricating NV diamond chips and for constructing and operating a simple, low-cost ‘quantum diamond spectrometer’ for performing NMR and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy in nanoscale volumes. The instrument is based on a commercially available diamond chip, into which an NV ensemble is ion-implanted at a depth of ~10 nm below the diamond surface. The spectrometer operates at low magnetic fields (~300 G) and requires standard optical and microwave (MW) components for NV spin preparation, manipulation, and readout. We demonstrate the utility of this device for nanoscale proton and fluorine NMR spectroscopy, as well as for the detection of transition metals via relaxometry. We estimate that the full protocol requires 2–3 months to implement, depending on the availability of equipment, diamond substrates, and user experience.
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The primary data of this study are available from the corresponding authors upon reasonable request.
The qdSpectro package is available to download from https://gitlab.com/dplaudecraik/qdSpectro and is licensed under the MIT License. The most recent version at the time of writing is v.1.0.1, but the user is encouraged to download the latest version and refer to the readme file for any patches and updates. The package is registered at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1478113, which points to the latest version.
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This article is based on work supported by, or supported in part by, the US Army Research Laboratory and the US Army Research Office under contract/grant no. W911NF1510548. D.B.B. was partially supported by the German Research Foundation (BU 3257/1-1). D.P.L.A.C. was partially supported by the NSF STC ‘Center for Integrated Quantum Materials’ under cooperative agreement no. DMR-1231319.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Key references using this protocol
DeVience, S. J. et al. Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 129–134 (2015): https://www.nature.com/articles/nnano.2014.313
Kehayias, P. et al. Nat. Commun. 8, 188 (2017): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-00266-4
Steinert, S. et al. Nat. Commun. 4, 1607 (2013): https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms2588
Staudacher, T. et al. Science 339, 561–563 (2013): https://science.sciencemag.org/content/339/6119/561
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Bucher, D.B., Aude Craik, D.P.L., Backlund, M.P. et al. Quantum diamond spectrometer for nanoscale NMR and ESR spectroscopy. Nat Protoc 14, 2707–2747 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41596-019-0201-3
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