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# Quantum diamond spectrometer for nanoscale NMR and ESR spectroscopy

## Abstract

Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) quantum defects in diamond are sensitive detectors of magnetic fields. Owing to their atomic size and optical readout capability, they have been used for magnetic resonance spectroscopy of nanoscale samples on diamond surfaces. Here, we present a protocol for fabricating NV diamond chips and for constructing and operating a simple, low-cost ‘quantum diamond spectrometer’ for performing NMR and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy in nanoscale volumes. The instrument is based on a commercially available diamond chip, into which an NV ensemble is ion-implanted at a depth of ~10 nm below the diamond surface. The spectrometer operates at low magnetic fields (~300 G) and requires standard optical and microwave (MW) components for NV spin preparation, manipulation, and readout. We demonstrate the utility of this device for nanoscale proton and fluorine NMR spectroscopy, as well as for the detection of transition metals via relaxometry. We estimate that the full protocol requires 2–3 months to implement, depending on the availability of equipment, diamond substrates, and user experience.

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## Data availability

The primary data of this study are available from the corresponding authors upon reasonable request.

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## Acknowledgements

This article is based on work supported by, or supported in part by, the US Army Research Laboratory and the US Army Research Office under contract/grant no. W911NF1510548. D.B.B. was partially supported by the German Research Foundation (BU 3257/1-1). D.P.L.A.C. was partially supported by the NSF STC ‘Center for Integrated Quantum Materials’ under cooperative agreement no. DMR-1231319.

## Author information

Authors

### Contributions

D.B.B. led the development of the protocol, buildup of the quantum diamond spectrometer, and acquisition and analysis of data, informed by extensive past work in the Walsworth group and aided closely by D.P.L.A.C. and M.P.B. D.P.L.A.C. wrote the qdSpectro software package. M.J.T. prepared the NV-diamond chip and provided technical assistance in buildup of the quantum diamond spectrometer. O.B.D. performed a pilot run of the protocol and provided feedback to improve procedures. D.R.G. provided technical guidance to all aspects of the effort. R.L.W. supervised the project. All authors discussed the results and participated in writing the manuscript.

### Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Dominik B. Bucher or Ronald L. Walsworth.

## Ethics declarations

### Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

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Key references using this protocol

DeVience, S. J. et al. Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 129–134 (2015): https://www.nature.com/articles/nnano.2014.313

Kehayias, P. et al. Nat. Commun. 8, 188 (2017): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-00266-4

Steinert, S. et al. Nat. Commun. 4, 1607 (2013): https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms2588

Staudacher, T. et al. Science 339, 561–563 (2013): https://science.sciencemag.org/content/339/6119/561

## Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Bucher, D.B., Aude Craik, D.P.L., Backlund, M.P. et al. Quantum diamond spectrometer for nanoscale NMR and ESR spectroscopy. Nat Protoc 14, 2707–2747 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41596-019-0201-3

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• ### Nuclear spin assisted magnetic field angle sensing

• Ziwei Qiu
• , Uri Vool
• , Assaf Hamo
•  & Amir Yacoby

npj Quantum Information (2021)