NLRP1 was the first inflammasome-forming sensor to be identified, but only recently has its mode of action been in the spotlight. Two groups now report cryo-EM structures demonstrating how NLRP1 is kept in check by the dipeptidyl peptidase DPP9, and they illuminate how DPP9 inhibition leads to NLRP1 inflammasome activation.
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This work was supported by the Fondation Bettencourt Schueller and by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft CRC 1054/B17 (Project-ID 210592381) and CRC 1403/A03 (Project-ID 414786233).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Bauernfried, S., Hornung, V. DPP9 restrains NLRP1 activation. Nat Struct Mol Biol 28, 333–336 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41594-021-00580-y