a–h, Comparison of behavioral measures between Square-consistent (Sq-con) and Circle-consistent (Ci-con) Squircle trials: a, response latency (Sq-con vs Ci-con: t23 = 0.30, p = 0.767), b, path tortuosity (t23 = 0.87, p = 0.393), c, distance of replaced objects from the context-consistent location (t23 = 0.76, p = 0.456), d, mean absolute angular difference in allocentric VR-facing direction between successive fMRI volumes, which reflects tendency to rotate VR-heading (t23 = 1.01, p = 0.325), e, percentage (%) of time spent in locations proximal to Sq (vs. Ci) boundary segments (t23 = 0.697, p = 0.394), f, % time viewing distal cues present in the Sq (vs. Ci) (t23 = 0.77, p = 0.448), g, % time spent viewing square (vs. circular) boundary segments (t23 = 1.58, p = 0.127), and h, % time spent VR-walking (vs. VR-stationary) (t23 = 0.06, p = 0.956). i, Comparison between the shapes of Squircle VR-walking path trajectories across trials. For each pair of trajectories (T1 and T2), (i) T2 was interpolated to have the same number of samples as T1 using a spline fit, (ii) a Procrustes transformation maximally aligned T1 to T2, and (iii) the distance between T1 and T2 was computed using a Fréchet distance metric (see Methods). j, The shape of VR-walking path trajectories did not reliably differ between Sq- and Ci-con Squircle trials: the average Frèchet distance between trajectories from trials sharing the same contextual memory (Same) did not differ from those with different contextual memories (Diff) (t23 = 0.39, p = 0.704). k, The Frèchet distance was computed between each Squircle trajectory and trajectories in the Sq and Ci. The difference between Squircle-Sq minus Squircle-Ci Frèchet distances were then computed, separately for Sq- and Ci-con Squircle trials. Positive (negative) values thus indicate that Squircle trajectories were more like those in the Sq (Ci). Squircle trajectories were more similar in shape to Sq trajectories, during both Sq-con (t23 = 2.56, p = 0.018) and Ci-con (t23 = 2.24, p = 0.035) trials. Critically, trajectory shapes did not differ in their similarity to the Sq or Ci across Sq- and Ci-con Squircle trials (t23 = 0.12, p = 0.902). l, Percentage of time occupying different locations in the Squircle during Sq-con (left) and Ci-con (right) trials, averaged across participants. Only 2% (1/49) of local Squircle regions showed differential sampling between Sq- and Ci-con trials (t-test, p < 0.05, uncorrected for multiple comparisons). Throughout the figure, error bars indicate ±1 SEM. All t-test two-tailed. Dots denote individual participants (n = 24). nsp > 0.05, *p < 0.05.