a, The strength of reliable periodic modulation (beta weight) as a function of VR-walking direction in the entorhinal (EC) subregion of interest from Fig. 4a for 90° (4-fold) and 45° (8-fold) periodicities. These control periodicities were tested in particular because a recent study using human intracranial recordings found a large proportion of EC neurons had spatially periodic firing fields with 90° or 45° rotational symmetry23. Neither 90° nor 45° showed significant reliable periodic modulation aligned to their respective orientations in either the Square (Sq) or Circle (Ci) (90°: Sq, t-test t23 = 0.28, p = 0.779, sign-test p = 0.541; Ci, t test, t23 = 0.94, p = 0.359, sign-test p = 0.839; 45°: Sq, t-test t23 = 1.26, p = 0.110, sign-test p = 0.308; Ci, t23 = −0.419, p = 0.661). Note that these null effects were not specific to the entorhinal subregion based on the 60° periodicity analysis, as we saw no effect for 90° or 45° in any voxels in the entire entorhinal cortex at pSVC < 0.05. b, The strength of grid-like modulation in the early visual cortex (EVC) region of interest. There was no significant reliable grid-like modulation in EVC in either the Sq (t23 = 0.94, p = 0.180) or Ci (t23 = 0.498, p = 0.312). These null effects were not due to averaging over all voxels in EVC, as there was also no grid-like modulation observed in the entire EVC at pSVC < 0.05. c, The strength of grid-like modulation in the hippocampus (Hipp) region of interest. There was no significant reliable grid-like modulation in Hipp in either the Sq (t23 = 0.12, p = 0.454) or Ci (t23 = 1.01, p = 0.161). These null effects were not due to averaging over all voxels in Hipp, as there was also no grid-like modulation observed in the entire Hipp ROI at pSVC < 0.05. d, Difference in the percentage of VR-walking directions modulo 90°, 60°, and 45° across the Sq and Ci. To align VR-walking directions across the Sq and Ci, for each periodicity (90°, 60°, and 45°), 0° corresponds to the orientation that maximized entorhinal periodic modulation for that periodicity, separately for the Sq and Ci. Black lines denote means across all participants, and grey lines denote individual participants. There were no differences in periodic VR-walking direction bias (t-test against zero, α=0.05, FWE-corrected) between the Sq and Ci that would be confounded with the presence of context-specific 60° periodic fMRI signal dependent on VR-walking direction Throughout the figure, error bars indicate ±1 SEM. Dots denote individual participants (n = 24). nsp > 0.05.