a, Leave-one-run-out cross-validated trial-by-trial context classification accuracy from the EVC was higher than chance (57.1% versus 49.9% in the permutation test, t23 = 2.31, p = 0.015; t23 = 2.24, p = 0.018 compared to 50% theoretical chance baseline). Though fewer participants had numerically greater context classification accuracy than expected in the permutation test in EVC than the hippocampus (n = 24, McNemar Χ2 test with Yates’ correction, Χ2 = 4.03, p = 0.045, two-tailed), this result nonetheless indicates that there tended to be different EVC activation patterns elicited in the Square and Circle, as expected given that the two contexts were visually distinct. b, Contextual similarity of EVC activity over time during Sq (red) and Ci (blue) trials. c, EVC CS Scores over time during Sq-con and Ci-con Squircle trials (Sq-con vs Ci-con replace phase: t23 = −1.63, p = 0.942, t-test, one-tailed). d, EVC Sq-con and Ci-con Squircle CS Scores binned by VR-locomotory behavior (contextual memory x VR-locomotion rmANOVA: VR-locomotion main effect, F1,23 = 1.69, p = 0.207; interaction, F1,23 = 0.25, p = 0.624). Throughout the figure, error bars or error bands indicate ±1 SEM. Dots denote individual participants (n = 24). Post-hoc t-tests were 1-tailed. nsp > 0.05, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.