Extended Data Fig. 3: Imaging-group’s performance. | Nature Neuroscience

Extended Data Fig. 3: Imaging-group’s performance.

From: Prediction errors bidirectionally bias time perception

Extended Data Fig. 3

Data is presented for participants in the imaging (fMRI) group, similar to main Fig. 1 and Supplementary Fig. 1, 2. a. Proportion of discrimination errors as a function of objective time difference between the two images (Δt), averaged across all trials separately for each PE-type. Shown is the main effect of Δt (F4,136 = 59.05, p < 10−5, η2 = 0.63), as well as significant interaction between Trial type and Δt (F4,136 = 6.6, p < 10−5, η2 = 0.16). b. Proportion of discrimination errors as a function of PE-type and Trial-type. An interaction between PE-type and Trial-type (F2,68 = 9.1, p = 0.003, η2 = 0.21). SL trials: mean PE+ = 0.33, mean PE- = 0.5, mean PE0 = 0.46. Better performance in PE+ vs. PE- (p<0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.77) and PE0 (p<0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.64), no difference between PE- and PE0. LS trials: mean PE+ = 0.31, mean PE- = 0.23, mean PE0 = 0.28, worse performance in for PE+ vs. PE- (p=0.05, Cohen’s d = 0.4), no difference in performance between PE+ or PE- and PE0. Inset: Performance after correcting for individual Time-Order Error (TOE). c. Proportion of discrimination errors as a function of time difference between images (Δt), separately for LS and SL trials. PE+ and PE- bias performance in opposite directions relative to PE0, for all values of Δt. d. Proportion of discrimination errors as a function of time difference between images (Δt), separately for LS and SL trials and corrected for TOE. PE+ and PE- bias performance in opposite directions relative to PE0, for all values of Δt. e. Proportion of discrimination errors as a function of individual Just-Noticeable-Difference (JND), corrected for TOE, fitted to a logistic function after JND normalization. f. Model fit to individual behavioral data, averaged over subjects. Error bars and error bands represent SEM (n=35). Notice that in this group (imaging), PE0 induced a slight time perception bias, because the distance between PE+ and PE0 is not similar to the distance between PE- and PE0 (see b, c, d, e). This is explained by the different values used in this experiment (−2,4), that create an expected value of 0.2 on average, and hence PE0 also has a small negative PE. For a full explanation and direct experimental evidence, see Supplementary Note subsection “A behavioral difference between the imaging and the behavior-only groups and its explanation (or: why does PE0 also have a slight bias in the fMRI group)”.

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