a, Position-variant running speeds on oval tracks with (blue, n = 12 recording session from 7 animals) or without (black, n = 19 recording session from 14 animals) virtual curtains in the fixed reward paradigm (reward locations marked as red lines). Although the overall averaged speeds slightly differ under the two conditions due to variations among individual animals, their position dependencies are very similar, likely determined by the turning and reward locations. b, Position-variant running speed on the oval track with random reward delivery (n = 4 sessions from 3 animals). Dashed lines depict location 1 and 4, as in Fig. 1. c, Position-variant running speed on the triangular track (red, n = 8 sessions from 6 animals). Speed on the oval track with virtual curtains was plotted as comparison (blue). Shadings depict the location where the same cue was available on both tracks. In all panels, population data are presented as mean±s.e.m.