a, Representative histology confirmation of extracellular recordings in CA3 using silicon probes. b, Recording paradigm. Most of recording sessions (n = 7/9) in this report included 5 epochs. Two cue manipulation epochs (duplication and shift) were sandwiched between control epochs. The rest 2 sessions only included the cue shift epoch and two control epochs. c, Spike clustering based on principle component analysis (PCA) of spike waveforms. Red and blue dots are two isolated spike clusters, while grey dots represent all other spikes (364694 spikes were detected in this session. A randomly sampled 10% of them were plotted). d, Color coded rate maps of the two sorted units shown in c (color scale: 0–45 Hz). Unit 1 is a putative interneuron (spatial selectivity: 0.06). Unit 2 is a place cell (spatial selectivity: 0.72). Boundaries between epochs are marked by cyan lines. Vertical white lines mark the locations of cue A and B, as in Extended Fig. 6. In this recording session, the second and fourth sessions were cue A’s duplication and shift, respectively, as labeled on the right. e, and f, Example sessions of simultaneously recorded place cells in CA3 during shift of cue A (e) or B (f). Spiking rate of each cell was normalized to its peak rate under the control condition. Cells were sorted based on center of mass of their firing field under the control condition.