a, Rate map of simultaneously recorded CA1 place cells (n = 35 cells) on the oval track in one session during cue duplication and shift. Cells were sorted with the center of mass of their place fields. Note that red boxes labeled cells that decreased their firing rates at location 4 but increased firing at location 1 after cue A was shifted from 1 to 4. b, Population vector-based decoding using the control rate map as the base. Decoding error under the cue duplication condition was plotted against the actual position on the track. Location 1 and 4 were marked by blue and yellow shadings, respectively. c, Decoding errors under the cue shift condition. d–f, The same plots as (a–c) with another CA1 recording session (n = 29 cells). g–l, The same as in (a–c) with two CA3 recording sessions (n = 18 and 23 cells, respectively).