Serial bias plots averaged across n=20 independent subjects for trials with TMS applied in vertex (a) and PFC (b), and difference between serial biases computed for sham and weak-tms trials in vertex (black) and in PFC (red) blocks (c). Same as Extended Data Fig. 6 and 7, but only analyzing data from the pre-registered (https://osf.io/rguzn/) replication study (n=10 subjects). Similarly to the original experiment, the behavioral impact of PFC TMS stimulation declined throughout the session, however not significantly (prev-curr × TMS intensity × session-half t5375 = –1.63, p = 0.1. Methods, Linear Mixed Models). Similarly to the original study, serial biases were more strongly modulated by TMS in PFC than in Vertex, however not significantly (t5379 = 1.12, p = 0.25) when analyzing the full session and the effect was stronger when analyzing only the first half-session (t2675 = 1.91, p = 0.06, Methods). x-axis coordinates mark the central value of windows (π/2 radians, sliding by π/30 radians) used to calculate behavioral biases.