Serial bias plots averaged across n=20 independent subjects for trials with TMS applied in vertex (a) and PFC (b), and difference between serial biases computed for sham and weak-tms trials in vertex (black) and in PFC (red) blocks (c). Same as Extended Data Fig. 6, but only analyzing data from the original study (n=10 subjects). Similarly to when pooling both the original and replication studies together, the behavioral impact of PFC TMS stimulation declined throughout the session, however not significantly (prev-curr × TMS intensity × session-half t5701 = –1.73, p = 0.08. Methods, Linear Mixed Models). Serial biases were modulated by TMS in PFC, but not in Vertex (t5705 = 1.92, p = 0.05) when analyzing the full session, and analyzing only the first half session (t3059 = 2.59, p = 0.009, Methods). x-axis coordinates mark the central value of windows (π/2 radians, sliding by π/30 radians) used to calculate behavioral biases.