Fig. 2: Close anatomical proximity of nervous and epithelial tissues in the olfactory mucosa. | Nature Neuroscience

Fig. 2: Close anatomical proximity of nervous and epithelial tissues in the olfactory mucosa.

From: Olfactory transmucosal SARS-CoV-2 invasion as a port of central nervous system entry in individuals with COVID-19

Fig. 2

ac, Cartoon (a) and histopathological coronal cross-sections (b,c; individual P9) depicting the paranasal sinus region with the osseous cribriform plate (turquoise asterisk and dotted line in b; pink asterisk and dotted line in c) and the close anatomical proximity of the olfactory mucosa (green in b, purple in c) and nervous tissue characterized by nerve fibers immunoreactive for S100 protein (c, brown). d, Cartoon representing the olfactory mucosa, which is composed of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (asterisk), basement membrane and lamina propria and also contains mucus-secreting BGs and bipolar OSNs, which coalesce to the epithelial layer. e,f, Immunohistochemical staining of the olfactory mucosa showing epithelial cells (e, immunoreactivity for the pan-cytokeratin marker AE1/AE3, red, individual P9), which closely intermingle with staining for OLIG2 specifying late neuronal progenitor cells and newly formed neurons (f, nuclear staining, brown, individual P27)45. In e, the basement membrane underneath the columnar AE1/AE3-positive epithelium is discontinued due to CD56-positive (brown) nerve fibers of either olfactory or trigeminal origin (arrow). g, Cell bodies (arrows) and dendrites (arrowheads) of OMP-positive mature OSNs (brown, control individual C6 without COVID-19) are shown. h, Immunostaining for TuJ1 corresponding to both immature and mature neural/neuronal cells and their dendrites (brown, control individual C6 without COVID-19). Scale bars: 0.5 cm (b,c), 30 µm (e,g,h) and 50 µm (f).

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