Abstract

Memory is coded by patterns of neural activity in distinct circuits. Therefore, it should be possible to reverse engineer a memory by artificially creating these patterns of activity in the absence of a sensory experience. In olfactory conditioning, an odor conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US; for example, a footshock), and the resulting CS–US association guides future behavior. Here we replaced the odor CS with optogenetic stimulation of a specific olfactory glomerulus and the US with optogenetic stimulation of distinct inputs into the ventral tegmental area that mediate either aversion or reward. In doing so, we created a fully artificial memory in mice. Similarly to a natural memory, this artificial memory depended on CS–US contingency during training, and the conditioned response was specific to the CS and reflected the US valence. Moreover, both real and implanted memories engaged overlapping brain circuits and depended on basolateral amygdala activity for expression.

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Data availability

All data supporting the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Code availability

Custom code for behavioral analysis is available from the corresponding author upon request.

Additional information

Journal peer review information: Nature Neuroscience thanks Mark Baxter and other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR) grants to P.W.F. (FDN143227) and S.A.J. (MOP74650) and by National Institute of Mental Health grants to K.J.R. (R01-MH108665) and F.G.M. (F31-MH105237). S.A.J. is a CIHR Canada Research Chair in Memory Function and Dysfunction. P.W.F. is a CIHR Canada Research Chair in Cognitive Neurobiology. The authors thank A. Ramsaran and J. Johansen for comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript.

Author information

Author notes

    • Gisella Vetere

    Present address: Laboratoire Plasticité du Cerveau, ESPCI- École Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles, Paris, France

Affiliations

  1. Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    • Gisella Vetere
    • , Lina M. Tran
    • , Sara Moberg
    • , Patrick E. Steadman
    • , Leonardo Restivo
    • , Sheena A. Josselyn
    •  & Paul W. Frankland
  2. Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    • Lina M. Tran
    • , Sheena A. Josselyn
    •  & Paul W. Frankland
  3. Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    • Patrick E. Steadman
    • , Sheena A. Josselyn
    •  & Paul W. Frankland
  4. National Center for PTSD at VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA

    • Filomene G. Morrison
  5. Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA

    • Filomene G. Morrison
  6. McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, USA

    • Kerry J. Ressler
  7. Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    • Sheena A. Josselyn
    •  & Paul W. Frankland
  8. Brain, Mind and Consciousness Program, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    • Sheena A. Josselyn
  9. Child and Brain Development Program, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    • Paul W. Frankland

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Contributions

G.V. and P.W.F. conceived the study and designed the experiments. G.V., L.M.T., and S.M. conducted the behavioral and immunohistochemical experiments. G.V. and L.R. conducted data and statistical analyses. P.E.S. conducted the iDISCO tissue clearing. P.W.F., G.V., K.J.R., F.G.M., and S.A.J. wrote the paper.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Sheena A. Josselyn or Paul W. Frankland.

Integrated supplementary information

  1. Supplementary Figure 1 Testing apparatus.

    a, Odor preference was assessed in a rectangular box. Filter paper containing acetophenone or carvone was placed in the lid of a Petri dish. This was covered by a Petri dish (with 9 drilled holes), and then bedding. b, Photograph and schematic of test apparatus.

  2. Supplementary Figure 2 Distance traveled in test sessions. These graphs depict the distance traveled during the test session in each of the experiments.

    a, Acetophenone paired with shock (ANOVA, F4,46 = 13.10, P < 0.0001). (The data shown here corresponds to groups shown in Fig. 1b, c: CS + US group, n = 15 mice; naïve/home cage, n = 8 mice; US only, n = 15 mice; CS only, n = 8 mice; US│CS group, n = 12 mice). b, M72 photostimulation paired shock (ANOVA, F2,26 = 10.86, P = 0.0004). (The data here corresponds to groups shown in Fig. 1f, g: CS + US group, n = 18 mice; CS only, n = 8 mice; US│CS group, n = 8 mice). c, Acetophenone paired with food (corresponds to data shown in Supplementary Fig. 6, n = 12). d, M72 photostimulation paired with LHb stimulation (2 tailed t-test: t14 = 0.59, P = 0.56). (The data shown here corresponds to groups shown in Fig. 2d, e: CS + US, n = 12 mice; US│CS, n = 8 mice). e, M72 photostimulation paired with LDT stimulation (2 tailed t-test: t18 = 1.29, P = 0.21). (The data shown here corresponds to groups shown in Fig. 2i, j: CS + US, n = 10 mice; US│CS, n = 10 mice). f, Acetophenone paired with shock (2 tailed t-test: t14 = 0.24, P = 0.81) (real memory condition in BLA silencing experiment, corresponding to groups shown in Fig. 4d, e). g. M72 photostimulation paired with LHb photostimulation (2 tailed t-test: t14 = 1.26, P = 0.23) (real memory condition in BLA silencing experiment, corresponding to groups shown in Fig. 4i, j). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 ****P < 0.0001 by Newman-Keuls. Error bars = s.e.m.

  3. Supplementary Figure 3 Schematic showing responses of the representative glomerular array (circles) to acetophenone and carvone.

    Acetophenone activates the M72 glomerulus (and other glomeruli). Carvone activates other glomeruli, but not the M72 glomerulus.

  4. Supplementary Figure 4 Training protocol pairing M72 photostimulation with shock.

    Each train included 40 pulses (pulse width 100 ms) delivered at 4 Hz. During the last 1 s of the train, a 0.7 mA shock was delivered. During training, mice received 10 photostimulation-shock pairs.

  5. Supplementary Figure 5 Training protocol pairing M72 photostimulation (artificial CS) with photostimulation of either LHb-VTA or LDT–VTA projections (artificial US).

    (Top) M72 stimulation occurred continuously through training, and consisted of 100 ms pulses, delivered at 4 Hz. (Bottom) Phasic VTA stimulation consisted of trains (0.5 s duration) of 5 ms pulses delivered at 30 Hz. Inter-train interval was 2 s.

  6. Supplementary Figure 6 Formation of an odor-reward memory.

    a, Schematic showing apparatus and training protocol. Mice were food-deprived one day prior to training. During training, acetophenone was paired with food, and preference (acetophenone vs. carvone) was evaluated one day later. b, In the test, mice (n = 12) spent more time on the acetophenone side of the apparatus (2 tailed, one sample t test vs. zero preference: t11 = 2.89, P = 0.015). Shading represents s.e.m. c, Summary data showing preference scores for individual mice. Error bar = s.e.m.

  7. Supplementary Figure 7 VTA photostimulation alone does not act as a US during conditioning.

    During training, acetophenone was paired with VTA photostimulation in mice (n = 12) not expressing ChR2. a, During testing mice did not exhibit conditioned aversion to acetophenone (2 tailed, one sample t test vs. zero preference: t11 = 0.47, P = 0.65). Shading represents s.e.m. b, Summary data showing preference scores for individual mice. Error bar = s.e.m.

  8. Supplementary Figure 8 Recall induced cFos expression.

    During the training phase mice received either CS alone (that is, acetophenone [n = 6] or M72 stimulation [n = 8]) or CS + US (that is, acetophenone paired with shock [n = 6] or M72 stimulation paired with LHb-mVTA stimulation [n = 7]). During testing, the CS only was presented, and c-Fos induction assessed in 18 brain regions (see Fig. 3a, b). The numbers of c-Fos+ nuclei are shown for mice in the ‘real’ (left) and ‘artificial’ (right) memory conditions. Error bars = s.e.m. Groups (CS + US vs. CS only) were compared by unpaired t-tests (2 tailed) in the real and artificial memory conditions. a, APir (real): t10 = 0.52, P = 0.62; APir (artificial): t13 = 0.56, P = 0.59. b, Pir (real): t10 = 0.26, P = 0.80; Pir (artificial): t13 = 0.20, P = 0.84. c, PLCo (real): t10 = 0.17, P = 0.86; PLCo (artificial): t13 = 0.20, P = 0.84. d, LEnt (real): t10 = 0.29, P = 0.77; LEnt (artificial): t13 = 1.17, P = 0.26. e, PMCo (real): t10 = 0.00, P = 0.99; PMCo (artificial): t13 = 0.71, P = 0.49. f, Tu (real): t9 = 1.34, P = 0.21; Tu (artificial): t11 = 1.70, P = 0.12. g, DTT (real): t9 = 0.68, P = 0.52; DTT (artificial): t10 = 0.25, P = 0.80. h, LOT (real): t10 = 0.99, P = 0.35; LOT (artificial): t11 = 3.25, P = 0.0077. i, AO (real): t10 = 0.99, P = 0.34; AO (artificial): t9 = 0.53, P = 0.61. j, V1 (real): t10 = 1.41, P = 0.19; V1 (artificial): t13 = 0.06, P = 0.95. k, VO (real): t9 = 0.86, P = 0.41; VO (artificial): t10 = 0.81, P = 0.43. l, BMA (real): t10 = 0.02, P = 0.99; BMA (artificial): t10 = 0.22, P = 0.83. m, CA1 (real): t10 = 0.36, P = 0.73; CA1 (artificial): t10 = 1.13, P = 0.29. n, RTn (real): t9 = 0.95, P = 0.37; RTn (artificial): t8 = 2.90, P = 0.020. o, Cg (real): t9 = 1.43, P = 0.19; Cg (artificial): t9 = 0.58, P = 0.58. p, Ce (real): t10 = 2.05, P = 0.068; Ce (artificial): t13 = 1.91, P = 0.079. q, La (real): t10 = 1.13, P = 0.29; La (artificial): t12 = 0.92, P = 0.38. Abbreviations: APir = amygdalopiriform transition area; Pir = piriform cortex; PLCo = posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus; LEnt = lateral entorhinal cortex; PMCo = posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus; Tu = olfactory tubercle; DTT = dorsal tenia tecta; LOT = nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract; AO = anterior olfactory nucleus; V1 = primary visual cortex; VO = ventral orbital cortex; BMA = basomedial amygdaloid nucleus; CA1 = field CA1 of the hippocampus; RTn = rsotromedial tegmental nucleus; Cg = cingulate cortex; Ce = central amygdaloid nucleus; La = lateral amygdaloid nucleus.

  9. Supplementary Figure 9 Regional cFos expression is highly correlated in real vs artificial conditions.

    a, CS only condition. Regional (n = 18 regions) c-Fos expression is highly correlated in mice in the real vs artificial conditioning groups (Pearson’s, r = 0.80, P < 0.0001). b, CS + US condition. Regional (n = 18 regions) c-Fos expression is highly correlated in mice in the real vs artificial conditioning groups (Pearson’s, r = 0.77, P = 0.0002).

  10. Supplementary Figure 10 C21 treatment alone does not affect conditioned odor aversion.

    During training, acetophenone was paired with shock in mice not expressing the DREADD, hM4Di. Before testing, mice were treated with VEH (n = 12) or C21 (n = 12). a. Both VEH-treated (one sample, 2 tailed t test vs. zero preference: t11 = 2.92, P = 0.014) and C21-treated (one sample, 2 tailed t test vs. zero preference: t11 = 2.40, P = 0.033) mice avoided acetophenone. Shaded area depicts s.e.m. b. Summary data showing preference in VEH- and C21-treated mice did not differ (2 tailed t test, t22 = 0.34, P = 0.73). Error bars = s.e.m.

  11. Supplementary Figure 11 C21 treatment reduces recall-induced activation of hM4Di-infected neurons in the BLA.

    a, b. During training, acetophenone was paired with shock. During testing, VEH-treated mice (n = 4) or C21-treated mice (n = 3) were presented with the CS (acetophenone) and c-Fos was quantified in hM4Di+ neurons in the BLA. C21 treatment reduced c-Fos expression (2 tailed t test, t5 = 3.03, P = 0.029). c, d. During training, M72 stimulation was paired with LHb-VTA stimulation. During testing, VEH-treated mice (n = 4) or C21-treated mice (n = 3) were presented with the CS (M72 stimulation) and c-Fos was measured in hM4Di+ neurons in the BLA. C21 treatment reduced c-Fos expression (2 tailed t test, t5 = 3.15, P < 0.05). In all graphs, error bars = s.e.m. Scale bars (in b and d) = 50 µm.

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