Supplementary Figure 6: TUS of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) did not impair translation of counterfactual choice values into actual behavioral change. | Nature Neuroscience

Supplementary Figure 6: TUS of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) did not impair translation of counterfactual choice values into actual behavioral change.

From: The macaque anterior cingulate cortex translates counterfactual choice value into actual behavioral change

Supplementary Figure 6

a, Neurostimulation site where TUS was applied for each of the four animals. The TUS transducer was set at a resonance frequency of 250 kHz and concentrated ultrasound in a cigar-shaped focal spot in the lOFC. b, The significant difference between the influence of the better counterfactual option value on future switching behavior (in dark blue, as per Figs. 2f and 5c) was unaltered after lOFC TUS (in red, n = 20 sessions) compared to the control sham session (n = 20 sessions) collected on interleaved days (Cohen’s d = 0.21, t38 = 0.65, P = 0.51). Because of the position of the head post, it was only possible to apply TUS to ACC in two animals. If we focus just on the data collected from the same two individual animals during lOFC TUS and interleaved control sham days (n = 10 and 10 sessions), it is still the case that there is no evidence of a significant effect (Cohen’s d = 0.14, t18 = 0.59, P = 0.56). We can also compare the size of the effects produced by ACC TUS (for the better counterfactual) and the size of the effects produced by lOFC TUS (for the same predictor). This reveals that ACC TUS produced a significantly greater effect than lOFC TUS (Cohen’s d = 0.69, t36 = 2.08, P = 0.04). Moreover, there were no significant baseline differences in behavior in the SHAM testing days in the ACC-TUS and lOFC-TUS testing periods (Cohen’s d = 0.05, t36 = 0.14, P = 0.88; similarly if we only apply the test for the same two animals that had been examined in the ACC-TUS experiment: Cohen’s d = 0.08, t26 = 0.20, P = 0.84). There was also no difference in the effect of the worst counterfactual on switching behaviors (Cohen’s d = 0.27, t36 = 0.82, P = 0.42; similarly if we only test for the two animals that were tested with ACC TUS: Cohen’s d = 0.39, t26 = 1.00, P = 0.32). All analyses are mixed-effect models with sessions and animals as random effects. c, Entropy is strongly and negatively predictive of change in exploratory behavior (indexed by cumulative number of ‘stay’ choices—choices of the same option on one trial after another) in the control condition (blue) and this remains the case after lOFC TUS (Cohen’s d = −0.24, t28 = −0.64, P = 0.52; comparison between the lOFC effect against the ACC effect: Cohen’s d = −0.56, t64 = −2.23, P = 0.02).