Supplementary Figure 3: Comparison of four potential models of ACC activity. | Nature Neuroscience

Supplementary Figure 3: Comparison of four potential models of ACC activity.

From: The macaque anterior cingulate cortex translates counterfactual choice value into actual behavioral change

Supplementary Figure 3

a, We contrasted four different accounts of activity found in ACC. b, We found that activity in the ACC, unlike in the hippocampus (Fig. 3) was not significantly modulated by the value of the unavailable option (red trace in leftmost panel). By contrast, activity in the ACC was significantly related to the value of the best counterfactual option (black trace in panel second from the left). Activity in the ACC could not be explained by the hypothesis that only options available for choice (and which might therefore affect the difficulty of choice selection) determined activity levels. Instead even options unavailable for choice (which could not affect the difficulty of choice selection) affected activity. When options were coded as HV, LV and unavailable options, the LV option did not exert a consistent influence over the ACC (third panel from the left). Activity in the ACC could not be explained in a simple way as a function of the values assigned to particular object identities (rightmost panel). Shaded areas represent s.e.m. across 25 sessions. c, As a result, model comparison unambiguously supported the second hypothesis of ACC function. Note that ROI selection avoids double dipping in favor of the hypothesis we aimed to validate, since the ROIs were defined from Hypothesis 1 that we aimed to reject.