Supplementary Figure 3: Impact of EES amplitude on muscle activity and leg kinematics during locomotion on a treadmill: Subject #1. | Nature Neuroscience

Supplementary Figure 3: Impact of EES amplitude on muscle activity and leg kinematics during locomotion on a treadmill: Subject #1.

From: Electrical spinal cord stimulation must preserve proprioception to enable locomotion in humans with spinal cord injury

Supplementary Figure 3

a, AIS leg motor score. b, Configuration of electrodes targeting the left and right posterior roots projecting to the L1 and L4 segments. Continuous EES was delivered through these electrodes to facilitate locomotion. c, EMG activity of flexor (semitendinosus/tibialis anterior) and extensor (rectus femoris/soleus) muscles spanning the right knee and ankle joints, together with the changes in the knee ankle and foot height trajectories over four gait cycles without EES and with EES delivered at 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 motor response threshold amplitude — similar results were obtained for 30 gait cycles (analyzed in d). EES frequency was set to 40Hz. d, Violin plots reporting the root mean square activity of the recorded muscles, the range of motion of the knee and ankle angles, and the step height for different gait cycles (n = 53 gait cycles). Small grey dots represent the different data points, while the large white dots represent the median of the different distributions. Box and whiskers report the interquartile range and the adjacent values, respectively. *, P < 0.05, ***, P < 0.001, Wilcoxon rank-sum two-sided test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons.