HISTORICAL NEWS & VIEWS: DECISION NEUROSCIENCE

Are we of two minds?

What you choose depends on what information your brain considers and what it neglects when computing the value of actions. An early theory used this insight for a computational account of habits versus deliberation. It has ultimately helped uncover how choice in the brain goes beyond such simple dichotomies.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Different evaluation strategies choose different routes to lunch.

References

  1. 1.

    Daw, N. D., Niv, Y. & Dayan, P. Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1704–1711 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Balleine, B. W. & Dickinson, A. Neuropharmacology 37, 407–419 (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Daw, N. D., Gershman, S. J., Seymour, B., Dayan, P. & Dolan, R. J. Neuron 69, 1204–1215 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Lee, S. W., Shimojo, S. & O’Doherty, J. P. Neuron 81, 687–699 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Everitt, B. J. & Robbins, T. W. Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1481–1489 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Gillan, C. M., Kosinski, M., Whelan, R., Phelps, E. A. & Daw, N. D. eLife 5, e11305 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Keramati, M., Dezfouli, A. & Piray, P. PLoS Comput. Biol. 7, e1002055 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Mattar, M. G. & Daw, N. D. Nat. Neurosci. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-018-0232-z (2018).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Dayan, P. Neural Comput. 5, 613–624 (1993).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Momennejad, I. et al. Nat. Hum. Behav. 1, 680–692 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Huys, Q. J. et al. PLoS Comput. Biol. 8, e1002410 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Sutton, R. S. Integrated architectures for learning, planning, and reacting based on approximating dynamic programming. Proc. Int. Conf. Mach. Learn. 7, 216–224 (1990).

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Sharpe, M. J. et al. Nat. Neurosci. 20, 735–742 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Miller, K. J., Botvinick, M. M. & Brody, C. D. Nat. Neurosci. 20, 1269–1276 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Foster, D. J. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 40, 581–602 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

I am grateful to my coauthors on the original article, Y. Niv and P. Dayan, and to many other collaborators, trainees, and colleagues who have helped to develop these ideas over the intervening years.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nathaniel D. Daw.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The author declares no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Daw, N.D. Are we of two minds?. Nat Neurosci 21, 1497–1499 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-018-0258-2

Download citation

Further reading

Search

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing