Brief Communication

Genome-wide association study of delay discounting in 23,217 adult research participants of European ancestry

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Abstract

Delay discounting (DD), the tendency to discount the value of delayed versus current rewards, is elevated in a constellation of diseases and behavioral conditions. We performed a genome-wide association study of DD using 23,127 research participants of European ancestry. The most significantly associated single-nucleotide polymorphism was rs6528024 (P = 2.40 × 10−8), which is located in an intron of the gene GPM6B. We also showed that 12% of the variance in DD was accounted for by genotype and that the genetic signature of DD overlapped with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, major depression, smoking, personality, cognition and body weight.

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Acknowledgements

We thank the research participants and employees of 23andMe for making this work possible. J.M. was partially supported by the Peter Boris Chair in Addictions Research. S.S.-R. was supported by the Frontiers of Innovation Scholars Program (FISP; #3-P3029), the Interdisciplinary Research Fellowship in NeuroAIDS (IRFN; MH081482) and a pilot award from DA037844.

Author information

Author notes

  1. A full list of members appears in the Supplementary Note.

Affiliations

  1. Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

    • Sandra Sanchez-Roige
    •  & Abraham A. Palmer
  2. 23andMe, Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA

    • Pierre Fontanillas
    •  & Sarah L. Elson
  3. Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

    • Anita Pandit
    • , Ellen M. Schmidt
    •  & Gonçalo R. Abecasis
  4. K.G. Jebsen Center for Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Nursing, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

    • Johanna R. Foerster
  5. Center for Deployment Psychology, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD, USA

    • Joshua C. Gray
  6. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

    • Harriet de Wit
  7. Vanderbilt Genetics Institute, Division of Genetic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA

    • Lea K. Davis
  8. Peter Boris Centre for Addictions Research, McMaster University/St. Joseph’s Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

    • James MacKillop
  9. Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

    • Abraham A. Palmer

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Consortia

  1. the 23andMe Research Team

    Contributions

    Conceptualization: A.A.P., J.M.; analysis and software: S.S.-R., P.F., L.K.D., J.C.G., A.A.P.; writing: S.S.-R., A.A.P.; review and editing: all authors.

    Competing interests

    P.F., S.L.E., and members of the 23andMe Research Team are employees of 23andMe Inc. The opinions and assertions expressed herein are those of the authors; specifically, with respect to J.C.G., they do not reflect the official policy or position of the Uniformed Services University or the Department of Defense.

    Corresponding author

    Correspondence to Abraham A. Palmer.

    Integrated Supplementary Information

    Supplementary information