Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Why it is important to study human–monkey embryonic chimeras in a dish

The study of human–animal chimeras is fraught with technical and ethical challenges. In this Comment, we discuss the importance and future of human–monkey chimera research within the context of current scientific and regulatory obstacles.

Your institute does not have access to this article

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Scheme of representative proposed in vitro experiments.

References

  1. Tan, T. et al. Cell 184, 2020–2032.e14 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Kobayashi, T. et al. Cell 142, 787–799 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Yamaguchi, T. et al. Nature 542, 191–196 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. James, D., Noggle, S. A., Swigut, T. & Brivanlou, A. H. Dev. Biol. 295, 90–102 (2006).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Das, S. et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 38, 297–302 (2020).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Maeng, G. et al. Nat. Biomed. Eng. 5, 805–814 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Agoglia, R. M. et al. Nature 592, 421–427 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Cohen, M. A. et al. Cell Stem Cell 26, 579–592.e6 (2020).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Wu, J. et al. Cell 168, 473–486.e15 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Aksoy, I. et al. Stem Cell Rep. 16, 56–74 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Thomas, J. et al. Regen. Med. 6, 25 (2021).

    Google Scholar 

  12. Theunissen, T. W. et al. Cell Stem Cell 19, 502–515 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Pastor, W. A. et al. Cell Stem Cell 18, 323–329 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Choi, J. et al. Nature 548, 219–223 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Wu, J. & Barbaric, I. Dev. Biol. 476, 209–217 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Ma, H. et al. Science 366, eaax7890 (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Niu, Y. et al. Science 366, aaw5754 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Tyser, R. C. V. et al. Nature 600, 285–289 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Yu, L. et al. Nature 591, 620–626 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Yanagida, A. et al. Cell Stem Cell 28, 1016–1022.e4 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Kagawa, H. et al. Nature 601, 600–605 (2022).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Wu, J. et al. Nature 540, 51–59 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Sharma, A. et al. Science 350, 640 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Garry, D. J., Caplan, A. L. & Garry, M. G. Stem Cell Rep. 14, 538–540 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Greely, H. T. & Farahany, N. A. Cell 184, 1962–1963 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Clarke, S., Zohmy, H. & Savulescu, J. Rethinking Moral Status Ch. 10 (Oxford Univ. Press, 2021).

  27. Cyranoski, D. Nature https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-019-02275-3 (2019).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. De Faveri, G. New guidelines for human-animal hybrids research released. The Academy of Medical Sciences https://acmedsci.ac.uk/more/news/home-office-releases-new-guidelines-for-human-animal-hybrids (2016).

  29. The Academy of Medical Sciences. Animals Containing Human Material https://acmedsci.ac.uk/file-download/35228-Animalsc.pdf (2011).

  30. Solender, A. Senate kills GOP legislation to prohibit ‘certain human–animal chimeras’. Forbes https://www.forbes.com/sites/andrewsolender/2021/05/27/senate-kills-gop-legislation-to-prohibit-certain-human-animal-chimeras/ (2021).

  31. Louisiana Revised Statutes §89.6 Human–animal hybrids. Louisiana State Legislature https://legis.la.gov/Legis/Law.aspx?d=670385 (2021).

  32. Arizona Revised Statutes §36–2312 Production of human embryo or human–animal hybrid: purchase or sale: prohibitions: violation: classification: exemptions. Arizona State Legislature https://www.azleg.gov/viewdocument/?docName=https://www.azleg.gov/ars/36/02312.htm (2022).

  33. Isasi, R. M. & Knoppers, B. M. Eur. J. Health Law 13, 9–25 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Baylis, F., Darnovsky, M., Hasson, K. & Krahn, T. M. CRISPR J. 3, 365–377 (2020).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. The Emerging Field of Human Neural Organoids, Transplants, and Chimeras https://www.nap.edu/catalog/26078/the-emerging-field-of-human-neural-organoids-transplants-and-chimeras (National Academies Press, 2021).

  36. International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR). Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation https://www.isscr.org/policy/guidelines-for-stem-cell-research-and-clinical-translation (ISSCR, 2021).

  37. Hyun, I. et al. Stem Cell Rep. 16, 1409–1415 (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank E. Olson for input and feedback.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

This work is the product of extensive collaboration and deliberation among all the authors. A.D.L.A. conceived the original idea and wrote the original version of the manuscript. V.M., N.B., G.C., H.D., J.C.I.B., W.J., Y.N., D.P., M.P., N.P., C.P.-A., M.S., J.C.R.S., T.T., A.T., A.R., and E.T.Z. provided conceptual contributions and wrote, edited, and gave final approval to the manuscript. J.K., Y.-H.L., and T.W. helped with editing of the manuscript. A.R. and E.T.Z. provided important conceptual contributions to the final version of the manuscript and, together with A.D.L.A., took the lead in writing, revising, and editing the final versions of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alejandro De Los Angeles.

Ethics declarations

Competing Interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Peer review

Peer review information

Nature Methods thanks Kazuto Kato and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

De Los Angeles, A., Regenberg, A., Mascetti, V. et al. Why it is important to study human–monkey embryonic chimeras in a dish. Nat Methods 19, 914–919 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41592-022-01571-7

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41592-022-01571-7

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing