Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Markov models — hidden Markov models

“Everything we see hides another thing, we always want to see what is hidden by what we see” — Rene Magritte

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Hidden Markov models have hidden states that emit values.


  1. 1.

    Grewal, J. K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. Nat. Methods (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Puga, J. L., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. Nat. Methods 12, 277–278 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Austin, S., Schwartz, R. & Placeway, P. in ICASSP 91: 1991 Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1991).

  4. 4.

    Rabiner, L. R. & Juang, B.-H. IEEE ASSP Mag. 3, 4–16 (1986).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Ghahramani, Z. & Jordan, M. I. Mach. Learn. 29, 245–273 (1996).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Martin Krzywinski.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Grewal, J.K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. Markov models — hidden Markov models. Nat Methods 16, 795–796 (2019).

Download citation

Further reading


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing