Cardiometabolic diseases have become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. They have been tightly linked to microbiome taxonomic and functional composition, with diet possibly mediating some of the associations described. Both the microbiome and diet are modifiable, which opens the way for novel therapeutic strategies. High-throughput omics techniques applied on microbiome samples (meta-omics) hold the unprecedented potential to shed light on the intricate links between diet, the microbiome, the metabolome and cardiometabolic health, with a top-down approach. However, effective integration of complementary meta-omic techniques is an open challenge and their application on large cohorts is still limited. Here we review meta-omics techniques and discuss their potential in this context, highlighting recent large-scale efforts and the novel insights they provided. Finally, we look to the next decade of meta-omics research and discuss various translational and clinical pathways to improving cardiometabolic health.
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This work was supported by the European Research Council (ERC-STG project MetaPG-716575 and ERC-CoG microTOUCH-101045015) to N.S. and by EMBO ALTF 593-2020 to M.V.-C. The work was also partially supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 program (ONCOBIOME-825410 project, MASTER-818368 project and IHMCSA-964590) to N.S., the European Union NextGenerationEU (Interconnected Nord-Est Innovation program, INEST) to N.S., the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health (1U01CA230551) to N.S. and the Premio Internazionale Lombardia e Ricerca 2019 to N.S. C.M. is funded by the Chronic Disease Research Foundation.
S.E.B., A.M.V., T.D.S. and N.S. are consultants to Zoe Global. N.S. reports consultancy and/or Scientific Advisory Board contracts with Roche, YSOPIA Bioscience, Freya Biosciences and Alia Therapeutics and speaker fees from Illumina and is cofounder of PreBiomics. The other authors declare no competing interests.
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Valles-Colomer, M., Menni, C., Berry, S.E. et al. Cardiometabolic health, diet and the gut microbiome: a meta-omics perspective. Nat Med 29, 551–561 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-023-02260-4