Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Can an implanted minipump deliver for diabetes patients?

The FREEDOM studies evaluated exenatide delivered via an implanted minipump in patients with type 2 diabetes; the final study evaluated cardiovascular outcomes but offers up more questions than answers.

Your institute does not have access to this article

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. Sattar, N. et al. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 9, 653–662 (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Holman, R. R. et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 377, 1228–1239 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Henry, R. R., Logan, D., Alessi, T. & Baron, M. A. Clin. Ther. 35, 634–645 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Henry, R. R. et al. Diabetes Care 36, 2559–2565 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Henry, R. R. et al. J. Diabetes Complications 28, 393–398 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Rosenstock, J. et al. Diabetes Care 41, 333–340 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Henry, R. R. et al. Diabetes Care 41, 613–619 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Henry, R. et al. Diabetes Obes. Metab. 20, 638–645 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Ruff, C. T. et al. Nat. Med. (2021).

  10. Rubino, D. et al. JAMA 325, 1414–1425 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. US Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration. Fed. Regist. 86, 49334–49337 (2021).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to John J. V. McMurray.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The author declares payments to his employer, Glasgow University, for his work on clinical trials, consulting and other activities: Alnylam, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, BMS, Cardurion, Cytokinetics, Dal-Cor, GSK, Ionis, KBP Biosciences, Novartis, Pfizer, Theracos. Personal lecture fees: Abbott, Alkem Metabolics, AstraZeneca, Eris Lifesciences, Hikma, Lupin, Sun Pharmaceuticals, Medscape/Heart.Org, ProAdWise Communications, S & L Solutions Event Management Inc, Radcliffe Cardiology, Servier, the Corpus, Translational Medical Academy, Web MD and (as Director) the Global Clinical Trial Partners Ltd (GCTP).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

McMurray, J.J.V. Can an implanted minipump deliver for diabetes patients?. Nat Med 28, 27–28 (2022).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing