Biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases are needed to improve the diagnostic workup in the clinic but also to facilitate the development and monitoring of effective disease-modifying therapies. Positron emission tomography methods detecting amyloid-β and tau pathology in Alzheimer’s disease have been increasingly used to improve the design of clinical trials and observational studies. In recent years, easily accessible and cost-effective blood-based biomarkers detecting the same Alzheimer’s disease pathologies have been developed, which might revolutionize the diagnostic workup of Alzheimer’s disease globally. Relevant biomarkers for α-synuclein pathology in Parkinson’s disease are also emerging, as well as blood-based markers of general neurodegeneration and glial activation. This review presents an overview of the latest advances in the field of biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases. Future directions are discussed regarding implementation of novel biomarkers in clinical practice and trials.
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I thank the following researchers who provided important input to this paper: A. Leuzy, J. Vogel, N. Mattsson-Carlgren, N. Cullen, O. Strandberg, R. Ossenkoppele, R. Smith, S. Palmqvist and S. Janelidze. O.H. was supported by the Swedish Research Council (2016-00906), the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation (2017-0383), the Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg foundation (2015.0125), the Strategic Research Area MultiPark (Multidisciplinary Research in Parkinson’s disease) at Lund University, the Swedish Alzheimer Foundation (AF-939932), the Swedish Brain Foundation (FO2019-0326), The Parkinson Foundation of Sweden (1280/20), the Skåne University Hospital Foundation (2020-O000028), Regionalt Forskningsstöd (2020-0314) and the Swedish federal government under the ALF agreement (2018-Projekt0279).
O.H. acquired research support (for the institution) from AVID Radiopharmaceuticals, Biogen, Eli Lilly, Eisai, GE Healthcare, Pfizer and Roche. In the past 2 years, he has received consultancy/speaker fees from AC Immune, Alzpath, Biogen, Cerveau and Roche.
Peer review information Nature Medicine thanks Berislav Zlokovic and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work. Joao Monteiro was the primary editor on this article and managed its editorial process and peer review in collaboration with the rest of the editorial team.
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Hansson, O. Biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases. Nat Med 27, 954–963 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01382-x