Machine learning techniques have great potential to improve medical diagnostics, offering ways to improve accuracy, reproducibility and speed, and to ease workloads for clinicians. In the field of histopathology, deep learning algorithms have been developed that perform similarly to trained pathologists for tasks such as tumor detection and grading. However, despite these promising results, very few algorithms have reached clinical implementation, challenging the balance between hope and hype for these new techniques. This Review provides an overview of the current state of the field, as well as describing the challenges that still need to be addressed before artificial intelligence in histopathology can achieve clinical value.
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We thank M. Hermsen for providing Fig. 1. J.v.d.L. acknowledges funding from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden, and received funding from the Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking under grant agreement no. 945358. This Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program and EFPIA. G.L. acknowledges funding from the Dutch Cancer Society (KUN 2015-7970) and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO; project number 016.186.152). F.C. acknowledges funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement no. 825292 (ExaMode, http://www.examode.eu/); the Dutch Cancer Society (KWF; project no. 11917); and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO; project no. 18388).
J.v.d.L. is a member of the advisory boards of Philips, the Netherlands, and ContextVision, Sweden, and received research funding from Philips, the Netherlands, ContextVision, Sweden, and Sectra, Sweden, in the last 5 years. G.L. is a member of the Medical Advances Advisory Board of Vital Images (Minnetonka, USA), received research funding from Philips Digital Pathology Solutions (Best, the Netherlands) and had a consultancy role for Novartis (Basel, Switzerland). F.C. is chair of the Scientific and Medical Advisory Board of TRIBVN Healthcare (Paris, France).
Peer review information Nature Medicine thanks Richard Levenson, Nasir Rajpoot and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work. Joao Monteiro was the primary editor on this article and managed its editorial process and peer review in collaboration with the rest of the editorial team.
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van der Laak, J., Litjens, G. & Ciompi, F. Deep learning in histopathology: the path to the clinic. Nat Med 27, 775–784 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01343-4
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