Table 1 Policy summary

From: Age-dependent effects in the transmission and control of COVID-19 epidemics

BackgroundThe distribution of confirmed COVID-19 cases has shown strong age dependence, with notably few cases in children. This could be because younger ages are less susceptible to infection and/or are less prone to showing clinical symptoms when infected. We used dynamic transmission models fitted to a range of available data on the age distribution of reported cases, and to studies that looked for infections among close contacts, to estimate the age-specific susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the age-specific fraction of infections that develop full clinical symptoms of COVID-19.
Main findings and limitationsWe find that those aged under 20 years are roughly half as susceptible to infection as those over 20 years of age, and that 79% of infections are asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic (that is, subclinical) in 10- to 19-year-olds, compared with 31% in those over 70 years of age.
As with all modeling studies, further data generated during the epidemic could change our parameter estimates. Population mixing measured in contact surveys might not be representative of contact patterns made during the early phase of local epidemics. However, our estimates are consistent across countries and intervention contexts.
Policy implicationsThese results have implications for the likely effectiveness of school closures in mitigating SARS-CoV-2 transmission, in that these might be less effective than for other respiratory infections. There are also implications for the global expected burden of clinical cases; countries with a large number of children might need to account for decreased susceptibility and severity in burden projections.