Fig. 4: Productive infection and cellular tropism of SARS-CoV-2 in human intestinal organoids. | Nature Medicine

Fig. 4: Productive infection and cellular tropism of SARS-CoV-2 in human intestinal organoids.

From: Infection of bat and human intestinal organoids by SARS-CoV-2

Fig. 4

a, Culture media were collected from the infected human enteroids and subjected to viral load detection and viral titration. Data present the mean and s.d. of one representative experiment, n = 3 replicates. Independent experiments were performed more than three times. Two-tailed Student’s t-test. b, Culture media collected from the inoculated colonoids were subjected to viral load detection. Data present the mean and s.d. of one representative experiment, n = 3 replicates. Independent experiments were performed two times. c, The human enteroids were fixed after a low MOI (left) or high MOI (right) inoculation and subjected to immunostaining to identify the viral NP (green)-positive cells. Nuclei and actin filaments were counterstained with DAPI (blue) and Phalloidin-647 (purple), respectively. Scale bar, 10 µm. Independent experiments were performed more than three times. d, After a high MOI inoculation, the human enteroids were co-labeled with α-NP (green) and α-Villin (red). Arrows show NP-positive cells coexpressing Villin. Scale bar, 10 µm. e, Induction of IFNL2 and IFNL3 in the human enteroids at 48 hpi. Results show fold change of GAPDH-normalized expression level in the infected enteroids relative to that in the mock-infected enteroids. Data represent mean and s.d. of one representative experiment, n = 3 replicates. Independent experiments were performed three times. Two-tailed Student’s t-test. The same RNA samples were applied to detect 84 human inflammatory cytokines and receptors. The heat map shows the differentially expressed genes in the infected enteroids (n = 3) relative to mock-infected organoids (n = 3). Genes with a fold change of more than 2 are illustrated; star (*) indicates a change of significant difference.

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