Table 1a Characteristics of individuals with symptomatic coronavirus, influenza virus or rhinovirus infection

From: Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks

  All who provided exhaled breath Coronavirus Influenza virus Rhinovirus
(n = 246) (n = 17) (n = 43) (n = 54)
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Female 144 (59) 13 (76) 22 (51) 30 (56)
Age group, years
11–17 12 (5) 0 (0) 8 (19) 4 (7)
18–34 114 (46) 10 (59) 11 (26) 24 (44)
35–50 79 (32) 2 (12) 16 (37) 18 (33)
51–64 35 (14) 4 (24) 8 (19) 5 (9)
≥ 65 6 (2) 1 (6) 0 (0) 3 (6)
Chronic medical conditions
Any 49 (20) 5 (29) 5 (12) 10 (19)
Respiratory 18 (7) 0 (0) 4 (9) 3 (6)
Influenza vaccination
Ever 94 (38) 6 (35) 15 (35) 20 (37)
Current season 23 (9) 2 (12) 1 (2) 4 (7)
Previous season only 71 (29) 4 (24) 14 (33) 16 (30)
Ever smoker 31 (13) 1 (6) 6 (14) 6 (11)
Time since illness onset, h
<24 22 (9) 0 (0) 5 (12) 2 (4)
24–48 100 (41) 9 (53) 13 (30) 25 (46)
48–72 85 (35) 8 (47) 18 (42) 20 (37)
72–96 39 (16) 0 (0) 7 (16) 7 (13)
History of measured fever ≥37.8°C 58 (24) 3 (18) 17 (40) 8 (15)
Measured fever ≥37.8°C at presentation 36 (15) 2 (12) 18 (42) 2 (4)
Measured body temperature (˚C) at enrollment (mean, s.d.) 36.8 (0.8) 36.9 (0.8) 37.4 (0.9) 36.6 (0.7)
Symptoms at presentation
Fever 111 (45) 10 (59) 27 (63) 16 (30)
Cough 198 (80) 15 (88) 40 (93) 44 (81)
Sore throat 211 (86) 15 (88) 31 (72) 49 (91)
Runny nose 200 (81) 17 (100) 36 (84) 48 (89)
Headache 186 (76) 13 (76) 30 (70) 38 (70)
Myalgia 176 (72) 12 (71) 31 (72) 34 (63)
Phlegm 176 (72) 9 (53) 34 (79) 41 (76)
Chest tightness 64 (26) 3 (18) 12 (28) 9 (17)
Shortness of breath 103 (42) 6 (35) 14 (33) 25 (46)
Chills 100 (41) 8 (47) 29 (67) 16 (30)
Sweating 95 (39) 5 (29) 18 (42) 20 (37)
Fatigue 218 (89) 16 (94) 38 (88) 48 (89)
Vomiting 19 (8) 2 (12) 5 (12) 2 (4)
Diarrhea 17 (7) 2 (12) 1 (2) 6 (11)
Number of coughs during exhaled breath collection (mean, s.d.) 8 (14) 17 (30) 8 (11) 5 (9)
  1. Seasonal coronavirus (n = 17), seasonal influenza virus (n = 43) and rhinovirus (n = 54) infections were confirmed in individuals with acute respiratory symptoms by RT–PCR in any samples (nasal swab, throat swab, respiratory droplets and aerosols) collected.