a, Study design. b,c, Net frequency of cytokine+ CD8+ (b) or CD4+ cells (c) after Gag stimulation at weeks −2, 6/7, 12 and 18. Total cytokine+ cells include cells that express at least one cytokine and effector function upon Gag stimulation (CD107A, IFN-γ, MIP1-β and/or TNF-α for CD8+; CD40L, IFN-γ, IL-2 and/or TNF-α for CD4+). Net value was calculated by subtracting the frequency of cytokine+ cells detected in a DMSO control. Bars show median values. Symbols represent biologically independent samples from n = 9 (weeks –2, 6/7 and 12) and n = 7 (week 18) bNAb-treated individuals with suppressed viral load during ATI (week 18 sample was not available for individual 9244 and individual 9242 reinitiated ART after viral rebound at week 15). Lines connect data from the same donor. P values comparing responses at week 6/7, 12 or 18 versus baseline (week –2) were calculated using a paired two-tailed Wilcoxon test.