(a) Structures of Phorbol esters similar to PEP005 tested in mDA cultures. (b) Western blots of α-synuclein (α-Syn) and p-PKCα in response to varying PEP005 doses. (c) Western blots of α-Syn and p-PKCα in response to varying Prostratin (PRO) doses in both YOPD and control mDA cultures. Dose ranging studies were repeated twice. (d) Predictive modeling of PEP005 binding sites on PKCα and similar affinity sites on additional proteins. (e) Three dimensional model of PEP005 binding sites on PKCα, PKCδ, and Ras overlaid to show similarity.