a, The observed deviation using age at recruitment estimated. Each dot represents one age group. The grey error bars show the 95% confidence intervals estimated from bootstrap the genotypes of individuals recruited at each age 1000 times. The sample size used for each error bar ranges from 15191 to 100117 with a mean of 65479. b, The predicted deviation from HWE using the corrected survival probability. A total of 395704 samples are used. The observed and predicted values are significantly correlated (Spearman’s correlation coefficient ρ = 0.67, P = 1.4 × 10−4).