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Seasonal manifestations of sickle cell disease activity

Nature Medicinevolume 25pages536537 (2019) | Download Citation

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by R01 grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (HL069438, DK056638, DK116312, DK112976) to P.S.F.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research and Departments of Medicine and of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA

    • Chunliang Xu
    •  & Paul S. Frenette

Authors

  1. Search for Chunliang Xu in:

  2. Search for Paul S. Frenette in:

Competing interests

P.S.F. has served as consultant for Pfizer, received research funding from Ironwood Pharmaceuticals and owns stock options of Cygnal Therapeutics.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Paul S. Frenette.

Extended data

  1. Extended Data Fig. 1 Trends for sickle cell disease in different states of the United States.

    a–d, Trends of search indexes from January 2004 to August 2018 for ‘sickle cell disease’ (under disorder) in Indiana (P < 0.001) (a), New York (P < 0.001) (b), Texas (P < 0.001) (c) and Georgia (P < 0.01) (d). Search index was plotted in the red tracings. The vertical dotted blue lines mark the beginning of each year. Cosinor analysis was performed using R Packages. The black lines correspond to the fitted cosine curves.

  2. Extended Data Fig. 2 Trends for sickle cell disease in different countries.

    a–g, Trends of search indexes from January 2004 to August 2018 for ‘sickle cell disease’ (under disorder) in the United Kingdom (P < 0.0001) (a), Canada (P < 0.0001) (b), Chile (P < 0.0001) (c), Argentina (P < 0.01) (d), Australia (P < 0.01) (e), and Nigeria (P = 0.58) (f). Search index was plotted in the red tracings. The vertical dotted blue lines mark the beginning of each year. Cosinor analysis was performed using R Packages. The black lines correspond to the fitted cosine curves.

  3. Extended Data Fig. 3 Trends for prostate cancer, myeloma, dementia, cirrhosis and influenza.

    Trends of search indexes from January 2004 to August 2018 for ‘prostate cancer’ (under disease) in the United States (P = 0.6) (a), ‘myeloma’ (under term) in the United States (P = 0.5) (b), ‘dementia’ (under disease) in the United States (P = 0.99) (c), ‘cirrhosis’ (under disease) in the United States (P = 0.34) (d), ‘influenza’ (under disease) in the United States (P < 0.00001) (e), ‘influenza’ (under disease) in Brazil (P < 0.01) (f), and ‘influenza’ (under disease) in Australia (P < 0.00001) (g). Search index was plotted in the red tracings. Note the high amplitude peaks in influenza tracings correspond to pandemic episodes (e.g., H1N1 swine flu pandemic in spring 2009). The vertical dotted blue lines mark the beginning of each year. Cosinor analysis was performed using R Packages. The black lines correspond to the fitted cosine curves.

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https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-019-0409-3

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