Seasonal manifestations of sickle cell disease activity

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Fig. 1: Google Trends reveals seasonal interest in SCD.

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All data supporting this article are available from the corresponding author upon request.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by R01 grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (HL069438, DK056638, DK116312, DK112976) to P.S.F.

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Correspondence to Paul S. Frenette.

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P.S.F. has served as consultant for Pfizer, received research funding from Ironwood Pharmaceuticals and owns stock options of Cygnal Therapeutics.

Extended data

Extended Data Fig. 1 Trends for sickle cell disease in different states of the United States.

a–d, Trends of search indexes from January 2004 to August 2018 for ‘sickle cell disease’ (under disorder) in Indiana (P < 0.001) (a), New York (P < 0.001) (b), Texas (P < 0.001) (c) and Georgia (P < 0.01) (d). Search index was plotted in the red tracings. The vertical dotted blue lines mark the beginning of each year. Cosinor analysis was performed using R Packages. The black lines correspond to the fitted cosine curves.

Extended Data Fig. 2 Trends for sickle cell disease in different countries.

a–g, Trends of search indexes from January 2004 to August 2018 for ‘sickle cell disease’ (under disorder) in the United Kingdom (P < 0.0001) (a), Canada (P < 0.0001) (b), Chile (P < 0.0001) (c), Argentina (P < 0.01) (d), Australia (P < 0.01) (e), and Nigeria (P = 0.58) (f). Search index was plotted in the red tracings. The vertical dotted blue lines mark the beginning of each year. Cosinor analysis was performed using R Packages. The black lines correspond to the fitted cosine curves.

Extended Data Fig. 3 Trends for prostate cancer, myeloma, dementia, cirrhosis and influenza.

Trends of search indexes from January 2004 to August 2018 for ‘prostate cancer’ (under disease) in the United States (P = 0.6) (a), ‘myeloma’ (under term) in the United States (P = 0.5) (b), ‘dementia’ (under disease) in the United States (P = 0.99) (c), ‘cirrhosis’ (under disease) in the United States (P = 0.34) (d), ‘influenza’ (under disease) in the United States (P < 0.00001) (e), ‘influenza’ (under disease) in Brazil (P < 0.01) (f), and ‘influenza’ (under disease) in Australia (P < 0.00001) (g). Search index was plotted in the red tracings. Note the high amplitude peaks in influenza tracings correspond to pandemic episodes (e.g., H1N1 swine flu pandemic in spring 2009). The vertical dotted blue lines mark the beginning of each year. Cosinor analysis was performed using R Packages. The black lines correspond to the fitted cosine curves.

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Xu, C., Frenette, P.S. Seasonal manifestations of sickle cell disease activity. Nat Med 25, 536–537 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-019-0409-3

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