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Molecular responses to immune checkpoint blockade in glioblastoma

Nature Medicinevolume 25pages359361 (2019) | Download Citation

Transcriptional signatures and immune cell infiltrates associated with immune activation distinguish patients with glioblastoma who initially respond to immune checkpoint blockade from those who do not.

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Author information


  1. Harvey Cushing Neuro-oncology Laboratories, Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

    • Hirotaka Ito
    • , Hiroshi Nakashima
    •  & E. Antonio Chiocca


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Competing interests

E.A.C is currently an advisor to Advantagene Inc., Alcyone Biosciences, Insightec, Inc., Sigilon Therepeutics and DNAtrix Inc. and has equity interest in DNAtrix; he has also advised Oncorus, Merck, Tocagen, Ziopharm, Stemgen, NanoTx., Ziopharm Oncology, Cerebral Therapeutics, Genenta, Merck, Janssen, Karcinolysis, and Shanaghai Biotech. He has received research support from the National Institutes of Health, the US Department of Defense, American Brain Tumor Association, National Brain Tumor Society, Alliance for Cancer Gene Therapy, Neurosurgical Research Education Foundation, Advantagene, NewLink Genetics, and Amgen. He also is a named inventor on patents related to oncolytic HSV1.

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Correspondence to E. Antonio Chiocca.

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