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The practical implementation of artificial intelligence technologies in medicine

Nature Medicinevolume 25pages3036 (2019) | Download Citation


The development of artificial intelligence (AI)-based technologies in medicine is advancing rapidly, but real-world clinical implementation has not yet become a reality. Here we review some of the key practical issues surrounding the implementation of AI into existing clinical workflows, including data sharing and privacy, transparency of algorithms, data standardization, and interoperability across multiple platforms, and concern for patient safety. We summarize the current regulatory environment in the United States and highlight comparisons with other regions in the world, notably Europe and China.

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This study was funded in part by the Innovative team (B185004102) and Backbone talent (B185004075) training program for high-level universities of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory.

Author information

Author notes

  1. These authors contributed equally: Jianxing He, Sally L. Baxter.


  1. Department of Thoracic Surgery/Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, China State Key Laboratory and National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou, China

    • Jianxing He
    •  & Kang Zhang
  2. Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, China

    • Jianxing He
    •  & Kang Zhang
  3. Shiley Eye Institute and Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

    • Sally L. Baxter
    •  & Kang Zhang
  4. Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

    • Sally L. Baxter
  5. San Diego Veterans Affairs Health System, La Jolla, CA, USA

    • Sally L. Baxter
    •  & Kang Zhang
  6. Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Lab, Beijing, China

    • Jie Xu
  7. Yidu Cloud Technology Inc., Beijing, China

    • Jiming Xu
  8. Department of Ophthalmology, Eye and ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

    • Xingtao Zhou


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Competing Interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Jianxing He or Kang Zhang.

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