Syndromic genetic conditions, in aggregate, affect 8% of the population1. Many syndromes have recognizable facial features2 that are highly informative to clinical geneticists3,4,5. Recent studies show that facial analysis technologies measured up to the capabilities of expert clinicians in syndrome identification6,7,8,9. However, these technologies identified only a few disease phenotypes, limiting their role in clinical settings, where hundreds of diagnoses must be considered. Here we present a facial image analysis framework, DeepGestalt, using computer vision and deep-learning algorithms, that quantifies similarities to hundreds of syndromes. DeepGestalt outperformed clinicians in three initial experiments, two with the goal of distinguishing subjects with a target syndrome from other syndromes, and one of separating different genetic subtypes in Noonan syndrome. On the final experiment reflecting a real clinical setting problem, DeepGestalt achieved 91% top-10 accuracy in identifying the correct syndrome on 502 different images. The model was trained on a dataset of over 17,000 images representing more than 200 syndromes, curated through a community-driven phenotyping platform. DeepGestalt potentially adds considerable value to phenotypic evaluations in clinical genetics, genetic testing, research and precision medicine.

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Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are divided into two groups, published data and restricted data. Published data are available from the reported references and also in Supplementary Table 6. Restricted data are curated from Face2Gene users under a license and cannot be published, to protect patient privacy.

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The authors thank the patients and their families, as well as Face2Gene users worldwide who contribute with their knowledge and dedication to the improvement of this and other tools for the ultimate benefit of better healthcare.

Author information


  1. FDNA Inc., Boston, MA, USA

    • Yaron Gurovich
    • , Yair Hanani
    • , Omri Bar
    • , Guy Nadav
    • , Nicole Fleischer
    •  & Dekel Gelbman
  2. Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

    • Lina Basel-Salmon
  3. Recanati Genetic Institute, Rabin Medical Center & Schneider Children’s Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel

    • Lina Basel-Salmon
  4. Institute for Genomic Statistic and Bioinformatics, University Hospital Bonn, Rheinische-Friedrich-Wilhelms University, Bonn, Germany

    • Peter M. Krawitz
  5. Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany

    • Susanne B. Kamphausen
    •  & Martin Zenker
  6. Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA

    • Lynne M. Bird
  7. Division of Genetics/Dysmorphology, Rady Children’s Hospital San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA

    • Lynne M. Bird
  8. Division of Medical Genetics, A. I. du Pont Hospital for Children/Nemours, Wilmington, DE, USA

    • Karen W. Gripp


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Y.G., Y.H. and O.B. initiated the project. Y.G., Y.H. and D.G. developed the DeepGestalt framework. N.F., L.B.-S., P.M.K., S.B.K., M.Z., L.M.B. and K.W.G. designed and conducted the clinical experiments. O.B. and G.N. finalized the dataset, computed statistics and contributed to the software engineering. Y.G., Y.H., O.B., P.M.K. and K.W.G. contributed to the writing of the manuscript.

Competing interests

Y.G., Y.H., O.B., G.N., N.F. and D.G. are employees of FDNA; L.B.-S., P.M.K. and K.W.G. are advisors of FDNA; L.B.-S., P.M.K., M.Z., L.M.B. and K.W.G. are members of the scientific advisory board of FDNA.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yaron Gurovich.

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