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Abstract

Antiretroviral therapy during the earliest stage of acute HIV infection (Fiebig I) might minimize establishment of a latent HIV reservoir and thereby facilitate viremic control after analytical treatment interruption. We show that 8 participants, who initiated treatment during Fiebig I and were treated for a median of 2.8 years, all experienced rapid viral load rebound following analytical treatment interruption, indicating that additional strategies are required to control or eradicate HIV.

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Change history

  • 05 September 2018

    In the version of this article originally published, the accession codes in the Data Availability section of the Methods were not linked correctly. The original URLs were https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/mf957336/ for MF957336 and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/mf957707/ for MF957707; they should have been https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/MF957336 and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/MF957707, respectively. The error has been corrected.

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Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the participants who have made this research possible. We thank T. Schacker for providing data on the lymph nodes from one participant. This work was supported by the NIH grant R01AI108433, a cooperative agreement (W81XWH-07-2- 0067) between the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), the Division of AIDS at the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and by an intramural grant from the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre. The US Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity (820 Chandler Street, Fort Detrick, MD 21702-5014, USA) is the awarding and administering acquisition office for the cooperative agreement. It is also supported in part with federal funds from the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, under Contract No. HHSN261200800001E. Antiretroviral therapy was supported by the Thai Government Pharmaceutical Organization, Gilead, Merck and ViiV Healthcare. The views expressed are those of the authors. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, the US Army, or the Department of Defense, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the US government, including the US National Institutes of Health.

Author information

Author notes

    • Jerome H. Kim

    Present address: International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea

Affiliations

  1. SEARCH, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok, Thailand

    • Donn J. Colby
    • , Eugène Kroon
    • , Jintana Intasan
    • , Nitiya Chomchey
    • , Nittaya Phanuphak
    • , Jintanat Ananworanich
    • , P. Phanuphak
    • , N. Teeratakulpisarn
    • , S. Chottanapund
    • , M. de Souza
    • , J. Fletcher
    • , P. Tantivitayakul
    • , P. Eamyoung
    • , D. Sutthichom
    • , P. Prueksakaew
    • , S. Puttamaswin
    • , S. Tipsuk
    • , K. Benjapornpong
    • , N. Ratnaratorn
    • , C. Munkong
    • , K. Tanjnareel
    •  & R. Kanaprach
  2. US Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA

    • Lydie Trautmann
    • , Suteeraporn Pinyakorn
    • , Morgane Rolland
    • , Hiroshi Takata
    • , Supranee Buranapraditkun
    • , Sodsai Tovanabutra
    • , Diane L. Bolton
    • , Trevor A. Crowell
    • , Jerome H. Kim
    • , Nelson L. Michael
    • , Merlin L. Robb
    • , Jintanat Ananworanich
    • , S. Krebs
    • , B. Slike
    • , A. Tokarev
    • , E. Sanders-Buell
    • , M. Bose
    • , C. Ogega
    • , J. Buahen
    • , M. Ouellette
    • , C. McCullough
    • , O. Butterworth
    • , E. Turk
    • , L. A. Eller
    • , M. Milazzo
    • , J. Mitchell
    • , C. Subra
    • , N. Lima
    • , J. Garnett
    • , F. Fatmi
    • , A. Sy
    •  & N. Dawson
  3. Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA

    • Lydie Trautmann
    • , Suteeraporn Pinyakorn
    • , Morgane Rolland
    • , Hiroshi Takata
    • , Supranee Buranapraditkun
    • , Sodsai Tovanabutra
    • , Diane L. Bolton
    • , Trevor A. Crowell
    • , Merlin L. Robb
    •  & Jintanat Ananworanich
  4. Centre de Recherche du CHUM and Department of Microbiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada

    • Louise Leyre
    • , Amélie Pagliuzza
    • , Nicolas Chomont
    •  & R. Fromentin
  5. Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

    • Supranee Buranapraditkun
    • , R. Rerknimitr
    • , P. Wattanaboonyongcharoen
    • , P. Rojnuckarin
    •  & S. Manasnayakorn
  6. Chulalongkorn Vaccine Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

    • Supranee Buranapraditkun
  7. Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases & HIV Medicine at Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA

    • Roshell Muir
    •  & Elias K. Haddad
  8. HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center, Bangkok, Thailand

    • Sasiwimol Ubolyam
  9. AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, USA

    • Brandie A. Fullmer
    • , Robert J. Gorelick
    •  & J. Lifson
  10. Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Rockville, MD, USA

    • Lawrence Fox
  11. Department of Retrovirology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences United States Component, Bangkok, Thailand

    • Rapee Trichavaroj
    • , Robert O’Connell
    • , A. Schuetz
    • , S. Akapirat
    • , B. Nuntapinit
    • , N. Tantibul
    • , H. Savadsuk
    • , Y. Phuang-Ngern
    • , S. Jongrakthaitae
    • , W. Chuenaron
    • , N. Churikanont
    •  & S. Getchalarat
  12. Department of Global Health, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    • Jintanat Ananworanich
  13. Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA

    • S. Spudich
  14. University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA

    • V. Valcour
  15. CCR, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD, USA

    • F. Maldarelli
  16. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    • I. Sereti
  17. Missouri Institute of Mental Health, University of Missouri at St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA

    • R. Paul
  18. EMMES Corporation, Rockville, MD, USA

    • P. Dawson

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Consortia

  1. The RV411 study group

Contributions

D.J.C., E.K., L.F., T.A.C., R.O.C., J.H.K., N.L.M., M.L.R., N.P., and J.A. designed the study. S.P. designed and performed the statistical analyses. L.T., L.L., A.P., M.R., H.T., S.B., R.M., E.K.H., S.T., S.U., D.L.B., B.A.F., R.J.G., R.T., and N. Chomont designed and performed the laboratory experiments. D.J.C. and J.A. led the study, with support from E.K., J.I. and N. Chomchey in managing the study. J.A. drafted the manuscript. All authors reviewed the manuscript, provided feedback, and approved the manuscript in its final form.

Competing interests

T.A.C. has received a speaker’s fee from Gilead. J.A. has received honorarium for participating in advisory meetings from Merck, Roche, AbbVie, Gilead, and ViiV Healthcare. P.D. is an employee of EMMES corporation. All other authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jintanat Ananworanich.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-018-0026-6

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