Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoid malignancy in adults, is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease that is further classified into transcriptionally defined activated B cell (ABC) and germinal center B cell (GCB) subtypes. We carried out a comprehensive genetic analysis of 304 primary DLBCLs and identified low-frequency alterations, captured recurrent mutations, somatic copy number alterations, and structural variants, and defined coordinate signatures in patients with available outcome data. We integrated these genetic drivers using consensus clustering and identified five robust DLBCL subsets, including a previously unrecognized group of low-risk ABC-DLBCLs of extrafollicular/marginal zone origin; two distinct subsets of GCB-DLBCLs with different outcomes and targetable alterations; and an ABC/GCB-independent group with biallelic inactivation of TP53, CDKN2A loss, and associated genomic instability. The genetic features of the newly characterized subsets, their mutational signatures, and the temporal ordering of identified alterations provide new insights into DLBCL pathogenesis. The coordinate genetic signatures also predict outcome independent of the clinical International Prognostic Index and suggest new combination treatment strategies. More broadly, our results provide a roadmap for an actionable DLBCL classification.
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We thank all of the members of the Broad Institute's Biological Samples Genetic Analysis Genome Sequencing Platforms. In addition, we thank all of the patients and their physicians for trial participation and donating the samples. This work was supported by a Claudia Adams Barr Program in Basic Cancer Research (B.C.), a Medical Oncology Translational Grant Program (B.C.), two LLS Translational Research Awards (M.A.S.), and the Lymphoma Target Testing Center (M.A.S.). The computational work for this study was supported by grants U54HG003067, P01CA163222, R01CA18246, U24CA143845, U24CA210999, and R01CA155010 from the National Cancer Institute and the National Human Genome Research Institute, as well as Leukemia & Lymphoma Society grant 0812-14. The Mayo group was supported by a grant from the US National Institutes of Health (P50 CA97274). R.S., M.L., and L.T. received Funding from BMBF (Federal Ministry of Research, Germany; Kennzeichen FZK 031A428B and FZK 031A428H). The Ricover60 Trial was supported by a research grant from Deutsche Krebshilfe (M.P.).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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A correction to this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-018-0097-4.
A correction to this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-018-0098-3.
Supplementary Figures 1–16 and Supplementary Note
Significantly mutated genes
Mutational signature analyses
Significant CNAs and correlation to gene expression
Univariate and multivariate outcome associations
Gene sample matrix and features of consensus clusters
Clinical features and features across clusters
Outcome analyses of clusters
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Chapuy, B., Stewart, C., Dunford, A.J. et al. Molecular subtypes of diffuse large B cell lymphoma are associated with distinct pathogenic mechanisms and outcomes. Nat Med 24, 679–690 (2018) doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0016-8
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