Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • Research Briefing
  • Published:

Three cytokine pairs modulate sepsis effects at the organism level

Sepsis is a global health issue in great need of effective therapies. Analysis of gene expression profiles in different tissues and at the whole-body level in mice enabled the characterization of the organism-wide host response to sepsis, which will help to build a unified mechanistic framework for the disease.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy this article

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: Three cytokine pairs recapitulate the transcriptional responses of organs to sepsis.


  1. Singer, M. et al. The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA 315, 801–810 (2016). This review provides updated definitions and clinical criteria for sepsis and septic shock.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. Cavaillon, J.-M., Singer, M. & Skirecki, T. Sepsis therapies: learning from 30 years of failure of translational research to propose new leads. EMBO Mol. Med. 12, e10128 (2020). This review discusses the challenges in sepsis translational research.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. Lewis, A. J., Seymour, C. W. & Rosengart, M. R. Current murine models of sepsis. Surg. Infect. (Larchmt) 17, 385–393 (2016). This review provides an overview of current mouse models of sepsis.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Poll, T., van der, Shankar-Hari, M. & Wiersinga, W. J. The immunology of sepsis. Immunity 54, 2450–2464 (2021). This review presents current knowledge of immune dysregulations in sepsis.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Fajgenbaum, D. C. & June, C. H. Cytokine storm. N. Engl. J. Med. 383, 2255–2273 (2020). This review provides an overview of the pathophysiological features of cytokine storm syndromes.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This is a summary of: Takahama, M. et al. A pairwise cytokine code explains the organism-wide response to sepsis. Nat. Immunol. (2024).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Three cytokine pairs modulate sepsis effects at the organism level. Nat Immunol 25, 202–203 (2024).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing