a, Global individual immune responses detected by LIPS in the 15 patients with COVID-19 for 11 relevant antigens. b,c, Differences of antibody response means between COVID-19 and negative control populations for 11 relevant antigens (b) and as a pie chart excluding N (c). Data for b,c are derived from Figs. 1 and 2. Each symbol represents the mean ± s.d. of the differences between COVID-19 (n = 15) and negative groups for the 11 relevant antibody levels in LU. Data shown in b were analyzed by one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. Owing to the differences in scale between N and all other ten antigens, a second ordinary one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test was performed excluding N to determine the dominance among the remaining ten antigens. ****P < 0.0001 versus all other antigens unless otherwise indicated. Background values were subtracted. Experiments were repeated twice.