Table 2 Non-climate drivers of the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases

From: Climate change: an enduring challenge for vector-borne disease prevention and control

Globalization and environment
DriverEffect
Deforestation, mining and damsChange vector and non-human host habitats
Ecosystem degradation/changeChanges vector and non-human host habitats
International travel and tradeSpreads pathogen and vector
UrbanizationProvides an ideal habitat for A. aegypti
Population displacementSpreads pathogen to new locations or puts immunologically susceptible populations in contact with the vector and pathogen
Sociodemographic factors
DriverEffect
Population demographic compositionChildren, the elderly and pregnant women may have elevated vulnerability
Level of economic developmentQuality of housing (including presence of air conditioning) affects exposure to vectors
Baseline incidence of diseaseVulnerability to climate change may be highest at the margins of current endemic areas
Population health statusLow level of population health increases vulnerability
Humanitarian crisesWar and famine confer high vulnerability
Public health systems
DriverEffect
SurveillancePassive and active surveillance inform prevention and control efforts
Early warning systemsPreemptive vector control and other public health responses occur before impending outbreaks
Vector controlVector control measures reduce vector abundance
Quality of healthcare systemAccess to and quality of healthcare can affect size of infected human population, as well as case fatality rate and prevalence and severity of disabilities
ResearchResearch on vector control, disease treatment, vaccine development, pathogen and vector evolution, and how to best coordinate prevention and control efforts across sectors, can lead to progress in control of vector-borne diseases
Vector and pathogen characteristics
DriverEffect
Insecticide resistanceVector proliferation
Vector evolutionPotential for greater vectorial capacity
Pathogen drug resistanceIncreased pool of infected humans
Pathogen evolutionPotential for higher pathogen transmissibility or virulence