(Left) During inflammasome activation in monocytes and macrophages, TLR and NLR−caspase-1 activation leads to synthesis and cleavage of pro-IL-1β, respectively. Robust production of IL-1β as a result of inflammasome activation is critical for pathogen clearance. (Right) In contrast, “T cell-instructed” IL-1β production by antigen presenting MPs utilizes TNFR signaling for pro-IL1β synthesis while the cleavage signal is provided by Fas-caspase-8 axis. The IL-1β produced upon such T cell instruction drives cytokine production by effector CD4 T cells, systemic leukocyte recruitment, and autoimmunity. Figure was created using Biorender.