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At the end of the beginning: immunotherapies as living drugs

An Author Correction to this article was published on 06 August 2019

This article has been updated

The American Course on Drug Development and Regulatory Science and the US National Institutes of Health held a workshop on cell-based immunotherapy on 22 January 2019.

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Fig. 1: CAR-T therapy.
Fig. 2: Approaches in various stages of development.
Fig. 3: Duration of remission, event-free survival, and overall survival of pediatric and young-adult patients with ALL given infusion of Kymriah.

Change history

  • 06 August 2019

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.


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We thank all the speakers, panelists, and organizers who made this workshop possible: Greg Campbell (GCStat Consulting), Cathy Cantilena (NIH), Natalie DeWitt (Accendo Scientific and NDA Partners), David DiGiusto (Semma Therapeutics), Jaikumar Duraiswamy (OTAT, FDA), Ellen Feigal (NDA Partners and Arizona State University), Thomas Fellner (Lonza Pharma & Biotech), Brett Giroir (US Department of Health and Human Services) Stephan Grupp (CHOP), Jaime Kenyon (American Course on Drug Development and Regulatory Science and the University of California, San Francisco), Harvey Klein (NIH), Telba Irony (CBER, FDA), Roger Kurlander (CBER, FDA), Crystal Mackall (Stanford University), Jorge-Mansilla-Soto (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center), Peter Marks (CBER, FDA), Carl Peck (NDA Partners and the University of California, San Francisco), Nicholas Restifo (NCI), Steven Rosenberg (NCI), Nirali Shah (NCI), David Stroncek (NIH), and Allen Wensky (OTAT, FDA, CBER). The full list of speakers and ‘slide decks’ for most of the presentations are on the website of the University of California, San Francisco, American Course on Drug Development and Regulatory Science (

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Correspondence to Ellen G. Feigal.

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Competing interests

E.G.F. directs the Biologics Practice at NDA Partners and is on the board of directors of the ARM Foundation for Cell and Gene Medicine.

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Feigal, E.G., DeWitt, N.D., Cantilena, C. et al. At the end of the beginning: immunotherapies as living drugs. Nat Immunol 20, 955–962 (2019).

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