Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Graph pangenomes find missing heritability


The use of association studies to identify candidate genes for complex biological traits in plants has been challenging due to a reliance on single reference genomes, leading to missing heritability. Graphical pangenomes and the identification of causal variants help overcome this and provide an important advance for crop breeding.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Graph pangenomes capture the genomic diversity that underlies the observed phenotypic diversity and maintains this structural variation information within the context of linear chromosomes.


  1. Zhou, Y. et al. Nature (2022).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. The Arabidopsis Genome. Nature 408, 796–815 (2000).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Appels, R. et al. Science 361, eaar7191 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bayer, P. E. et al. Plant Biotechnol. J. 19, 2488–2500 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Tettelin, H. et al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 13950–13955 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Yao, W. et al. Genome Biol. 16, 187 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Li, Y.-H. et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 32, 1045–1052 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Durant, É., Sabot, F., Conte, M. & Rouard, M. Bioinformatics 37, 4556–4558 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to David Edwards or Jacqueline Batley.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Edwards, D., Batley, J. Graph pangenomes find missing heritability. Nat Genet 54, 919–920 (2022).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing