Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Genomic analyses reveal domestication history and transgenic insertions in papaya

The genome of the SunUp transgenic papaya cultivar includes a complex 1.64-Mb insertion that contains 3 transgenic fragments integrated with 61 nuclear genome fragments from the progenitor Sunset cultivar and 13 organelle genome fragments. Population genomic analyses yielded 147 selective sweeps during papaya domestication, which include essential genes that are involved in fruit flesh color formation and sugar content.

Your institute does not have access to this article

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Comparative genomic analysis of the 1.64-Mb insertion in the transgenic SunUp and non-transgenic progenitor Sunset papaya cultivars.


  1. Fuentes, G. & Santamaría, J. M. in Genetics and Genomics of Papaya (eds Ming, R. & Moore, P. H.) 3–15 (Springer, 2014). A Review article that presents the origin and domestication of papaya in southern Mexico and Central America.

  2. Chakravarty, I. Food-Based Strategies to Control Vitamin A Deficiency. Food Nutr. Bull. 21, 135–143 (2000). This paper reports vitamin A deficiency in developing countries and recommends papaya as part of the solution to combat vitamin A deficiency.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. VanBuren, R. et al. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome. Gen. Res. 25, 524–533 (2015). This paper reports the domestication of hermaphrodite papaya from a dioecious population in northwest Costa Rica about 4,000 years ago.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Gonsalves, D. Control of papaya ringspot virus in papaya: a case study. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 36, 415–437 (1998). A Review article that presents the details of how the PRSV-resistant transgenic cultivars were engineered and tested.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Ming, R. et al. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus). Nature 452, 991–996 (2008). This paper reports the first draft papaya genome that identified three transgenic fragments, not anchored to the draft genome.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This is a summary of: Yue, J. et al. SunUp and Sunset genomes revealed impact of particle bombardment mediated transfromation and domestication history in papaya. Nat. Genet. (2022).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Genomic analyses reveal domestication history and transgenic insertions in papaya. Nat Genet 54, 539–540 (2022).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing