Risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals). We confirm 20 previous LOAD risk loci and identify five new genome-wide loci (IQCK, ACE, ADAM10, ADAMTS1, and WWOX), two of which (ADAM10, ACE) were identified in a recent genome-wide association (GWAS)-by-familial-proxy of Alzheimer’s or dementia. Fine-mapping of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region confirms the neurological and immune-mediated disease haplotype HLA-DR15 as a risk factor for LOAD. Pathway analysis implicates immunity, lipid metabolism, tau binding proteins, and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism, showing that genetic variants affecting APP and Aβ processing are associated not only with early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease but also with LOAD. Analyses of risk genes and pathways show enrichment for rare variants (P = 1.32 × 10−7), indicating that additional rare variants remain to be identified. We also identify important genetic correlations between LOAD and traits such as family history of dementia and education.
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Alzheimer's Research & Therapy Open Access 15 July 2022
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Genome-wide summary statistics for the Stage 1 discovery have been deposited in The National Institute on Aging Genetics of Alzheimer’s Disease Data Storage Site (NIAGADS)—a NIA/NIH-sanctioned qualified-access data repository, under accession NG00075. Stage 1 data (individual level) for the GERAD cohort can be accessed by applying directly to Cardiff University. Stage 1 ADGC data are deposited in NIAGADS. Stage 1 CHARGE data are accessible by applying to dbGaP for all US cohorts and to Erasmus University for Rotterdam data. AGES primary data are not available owing to Icelandic laws. Stage 2 and Stage 3 primary data are available upon request.
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We thank all the participants of this study for their contributions. Additional acknowledgements and detailed acknowledgments of funding sources for the study are provided in the Supplementary Note.