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Nature Geneticsvolume 50pages16331637 (2018) | Download Citation

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A.S. is supported by the Chris Rokos Fellowship in Evolution and Cancer and by Cancer Research UK (A22909). T.A.G. is supported by Cancer Research UK (A19771). C.P.B. is supported by the Wellcome Trust (097319/Z/11/Z). B.W. is supported by a Geoffrey W. Lewis Post-Doctoral Training fellowship. A.S. and T.A.G. are jointly supported by the Wellcome Trust (202778/B/16/Z and 202778/Z/16/Z, respectively). M.J.W. is supported by a Medical Research Council student scholarship.

Author information

Author notes

  1. These authors contributed equally: Timon Heide, Luis Zapata, Marc J. Williams, Benjamin Werner


  1. Evolutionary Genomics and Modelling Lab, Centre for Evolution and Cancer, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK

    • Timon Heide
    • , Luis Zapata
    • , Benjamin Werner
    • , Giulio Caravagna
    •  & Andrea Sottoriva
  2. Evolution and Cancer Laboratory, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Marry University of London, London, UK

    • Marc J. Williams
    •  & Trevor A. Graham
  3. Centre for Mathematics and Physics in the Life Sciences and Experimental Biology (CoMPLEX), University College London, London, UK

    • Marc J. Williams
  4. Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London, UK

    • Chris P. Barnes
  5. Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, UK

    • Chris P. Barnes


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T.H. performed simulation and bioinformatic analyses. L.Z. performed dN/dS analysis. M.J.W. performed additional simulation analysis. B.W. performed mathematical analysis. G.C. provided expertise on clustering analysis. C.P.B., T.A.G. and A.S. conceived and led the study. All authors addressed the criticism and wrote the response.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Trevor A. Graham or Andrea Sottoriva.

Supplementary information

  1. Supplementary Text and Figures

    Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Figures 1 and 2

  2. Reporting Summary

  3. Supplementary Table 1

    Supplementary Table 1

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    Supplementary Table 2

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