To define potentially causal variants for autoimmune disease, we fine-mapped1,2 76 rheumatoid arthritis (11,475 cases, 15,870 controls)3 and type 1 diabetes loci (9,334 cases, 11,111 controls)4. After sequencing 799 1-kilobase regulatory (H3K4me3) regions within these loci in 568 individuals, we observed accurate imputation for 89% of common variants. We defined credible sets of ≤5 causal variants at 5 rheumatoid arthritis and 10 type 1 diabetes loci. We identified potentially causal missense variants at DNASE1L3, PTPN22, SH2B3, and TYK2, and noncoding variants at MEG3, CD28–CTLA4, and IL2RA. We also identified potential candidate causal variants at SIRPG and TNFAIP3. Using functional assays, we confirmed allele-specific protein binding and differential enhancer activity for three variants: the CD28–CTLA4 rs117701653 SNP, MEG3 rs34552516 indel, and TNFAIP3 rs35926684 indel.
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Summary statistics for all variants are available through the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/immunogenomics/harmjan/tree/master/RA-T1D-Finemap-SummaryStats. Genotype data have been previously published3,4 and are available from Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium International and the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium upon request. The ATAC-Seq data discussed in this publication have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE116497.
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This work is supported in part by funding from the National Institutes of Health (U01GM092691, UH2AR067677, 1U01HG009088, and 1R01AR063759 to S.R.), and Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Grant number 2013097. This work is part of the research program Rubicon ALW with project number 825.14.019 (H.-J.W.), which is partly financed by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. Further support was provided by Wellcome (107212/Z/15/Z) and the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (5-SRA-2015-130-A-N) to the Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, and by Wellcome (203141/Z/16/Z) to the Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics (J.A.T.). P.K.G. was supported in part by the Feinstein Institute and a generous gift from E. L. Greenland. P.A.N. is supported by a Rheumatology Research Foundation Disease Targeted Research Grant, NIH P30 AR070253 and R01 AR065538, and the Fundación Bechara. S.S.R., W.-M.C. and S.O. were supported in part by funding from the National Institutes of Health (R01DK096926). This research makes use of resources provided by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium, a collaborative clinical study sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International, and is supported by grant U01DK062418 (S.S.R.).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Westra, H., Martínez-Bonet, M., Onengut-Gumuscu, S. et al. Fine-mapping and functional studies highlight potential causal variants for rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes. Nat Genet 50, 1366–1374 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0216-7
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