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Association analyses of more than 140,000 men identify 63 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci

Nature Geneticsvolume 50pages928936 (2018) | Download Citation


Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and fine-mapping efforts to date have identified more than 100 prostate cancer (PrCa)-susceptibility loci. We meta-analyzed genotype data from a custom high-density array of 46,939 PrCa cases and 27,910 controls of European ancestry with previously genotyped data of 32,255 PrCa cases and 33,202 controls of European ancestry. Our analysis identified 62 novel loci associated (P < 5.0 × 10−8) with PrCa and one locus significantly associated with early-onset PrCa (≤55 years). Our findings include missense variants rs1800057 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16; P = 8.2 × 10−9; G>C, p.Pro1054Arg) in ATM and rs2066827 (OR = 1.06; P = 2.3 × 10−9; T>G, p.Val109Gly) in CDKN1B. The combination of all loci captured 28.4% of the PrCa familial relative risk, and a polygenic risk score conferred an elevated PrCa risk for men in the ninetieth to ninety-ninth percentiles (relative risk = 2.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55–2.82) and first percentile (relative risk = 5.71; 95% CI: 5.04–6.48) risk stratum compared with the population average. These findings improve risk prediction, enhance fine-mapping, and provide insight into the underlying biology of PrCa1.

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Change history

  • 08 January 2019

    In the version of this article initially published, the name of author Manuela Gago-Dominguez was misspelled as Manuela Gago Dominguez. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF version of the article.


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We pay tribute to Brian Henderson for his vision and leadership; he was a driving force behind the OncoArray project and he unfortunately passed away before seeing its fruition. We also thank the individuals who participated in these studies enabling this work.

Genotyping of the OncoArray was funded by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) (U19 CA 148537 for the ELLIPSE project and X01HG007492 to the Center for Inherited Disease Research (CIDR) under contract no. HHSN268201200008I. Additional analytical support was provided by NIH NCI U01 CA188392 (to F.R.S.).

Funding for the iCOGS infrastructure came from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement no. 223175 (HEALTH-F2-2009-223175) (COGS), Cancer Research UK (C1287/A10118, C1287/A 10710, C12292/A11174, C1281/A12014, C5047/A8384, C5047/A15007, C5047/A10692, and C8197/A16565), the NIH (CA128978) and Post-Cancer GWAS Initiative (1U19 CA148537, 1U19 CA148065, and 1U19 CA148112; the GAME-ON initiative), the Department of Defense (W81XWH-10-1-0341), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) for the CIHR Team in Familial Risks of Breast Cancer, Komen Foundation for the Cure, the Breast Cancer Research Foundation, and the Ovarian Cancer Research Fund.

This work was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme grant agreement no. 223175 (HEALTH-F2-2009-223175); Cancer Research UK grants C5047/A7357, C1287/A10118, C1287/A16563, C5047/A3354, C5047/A10692, and C16913/A6135; and NIH Cancer Post-Cancer GWAS initiative grant no. 1 U19 CA 148537-01 (the GAME-ON initiative).

We also thank the following for funding support: the Institute of Cancer Research and the Everyman Campaign, the Prostate Cancer Research Foundation, Prostate Research Campaign UK (now Prostate Action), the Orchid Cancer Appeal, the National Cancer Research Network UK, and the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) UK. We are grateful for the support of NIHR funding to the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at the Institute of Cancer Research and the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust.

The Prostate Cancer Program of Cancer Council Victoria also acknowledges grant support from the National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia (126402, 209057, 251533, 396414, 450104, 504700, 504702, 504715, 623204, 940394, and 614296), VicHealth, Cancer Council Victoria, the Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia, the Whitten Foundation, PricewaterhouseCoopers, and Tattersall’s. E.A.O., D.M.K., and E.M.K. acknowledge the Intramural Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute for support.

The BPC3 was supported by the NIH, National Cancer Institute (cooperative agreements U01-CA98233 to D.J.H., U01-CA98710 to S.M.G., U01-CA98216 to E.R., and U01-CA98758 to B.E.H., and the Intramural Research Program of the NIH/National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics).

The CAPS GWAS study was supported by the Swedish Cancer Foundation (grant nos. 09-0677, 11-484, and 12-823), the Cancer Risk Prediction Center (CRisP; http://ki.se/en/meb/crisp/), a Linneus Centre grant (contract ID 70867902) financed by the Swedish Research Council, and the Swedish Research Council (grant nos. K2010-70X-20430-04-3, and 2014-2269).

PEGASUS was supported by the Intramural Research Program, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH.

A full description of funding and acknowledgements can be found in the Supplementary Note.

Author information

Author notes

  1. These authors contributed equally: Fredrick R. Schumacher, Ali Amin Al Olama, Sonja I. Berndt.

  2. These authors jointly supervised this work: David V. Conti, Douglas F. Easton, Fredrik Wiklund, Stephen J. Chanock, Brian E. Henderson, Z. Sofia Kote-Jarai, Christopher A. Haiman, Rosalind A. Eeles.

  3. Deceased: Brian E. Henderson.

  4. A list of members and affiliations appears in the Supplementary Note


  1. Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA

    • Fredrick R. Schumacher
    •  & Zuxi Cui
  2. Seidman Cancer Center, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH, USA

    • Fredrick R. Schumacher
  3. Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, University of Cambridge, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge, UK

    • Ali Amin Al Olama
    • , Sara Benlloch
    • , Joe Dennis
    • , Jonathan Tyrer
    • , Paul Pharoah
    •  & Douglas F. Easton
  4. Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

    • Ali Amin Al Olama
  5. Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA

    • Sonja I. Berndt
    • , Demetrius Albanes
    • , Stephanie Weinstein
    • , Stella Koutros
    • , Laura E. Beane Freeman
    • , Robert N. Hoover
    • , Mitchell J. Machiela
    •  & Stephen J. Chanock
  6. Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK

    • Sara Benlloch
    • , Mahbubl Ahmed
    • , Edward J. Saunders
    • , Tokhir Dadaev
    • , Daniel Leongamornlert
    • , Ezequiel Anokian
    • , Clara Cieza-Borrella
    • , Chee Goh
    • , Mark N. Brook
    • , Zsofia Kote-Jarai
    •  & Rosalind A. Eeles
  7. Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA

    • Xin Sheng
    • , Sue Ann Ingles
    • , Mariana C. Stern
    • , David V. Conti
    • , Brian E. Henderson
    •  & Christopher A. Haiman
  8. Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica–SERGAS, Grupo de Medicina Xenómica, CIBERER, IDIS, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

    • Laura Fachal
  9. Department of Oncology, Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Strangeways Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

    • Laura Fachal
    • , Paul Pharoah
    • , Nora Pashayan
    • , Alison M. Dunning
    •  & Douglas F. Easton
  10. Division of Population Health, Health Services Research and Primary Care, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

    • Kenneth Muir
    •  & Artitaya Lophatananon
  11. Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

    • Kenneth Muir
    •  & Artitaya Lophatananon
  12. Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA

    • Victoria L. Stevens
    • , Susan M. Gapstur
    •  & Brian D. Carter
  13. SWOG Statistical Center, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA

    • Catherine M. Tangen
    •  & Phyllis J. Goodman
  14. CHRISTUS Santa Rosa Hospital–Medical Center, San Antonio, TX, USA

    • Ian M. Thompson Jr
  15. Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and School of Biomedical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

    • Jyotsna Batra
    • , Leire Moya
    •  & Judith Clements
  16. Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre–Qld, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

    • Jyotsna Batra
    • , Leire Moya
    •  & Judith Clements
  17. Menzies Health Institute of Queensland, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia

    • Suzanne Chambers
  18. Cancer Council Queensland, Fortitude Valley, Queensland, Australia

    • Suzanne Chambers
  19. Chris O’Brien Lifehouse (COBLH), Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia

    • Lisa Horvath
  20. Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    • Lisa Horvath
  21. Dame Roma Mitchell Cancer Research Centre, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

    • Wayne Tilley
  22. Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute Cancer Program, Prostate Cancer Research Program, Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Victoria, Australia

    • Gail P. Risbridger
  23. Cancer Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia

    • Gail P. Risbridger
  24. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

    • Henrik Gronberg
    • , Tobias Nordström
    • , Martin Eklund
    •  & Fredrik Wiklund
  25. Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

    • Markus Aly
  26. Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

    • Markus Aly
  27. Department of Clinical Sciences at Danderyds Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

    • Tobias Nordström
  28. Department of Applied Health Research, University College London, London, UK

    • Nora Pashayan
  29. Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

    • Johanna Schleutker
    •  & Csilla Sipeky
  30. Tyks Microbiology and Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland

    • Johanna Schleutker
  31. Department of Urology, Tampere University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland

    • Teuvo L. J. Tammela
  32. Department of Epidemiology, School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland

    • Anssi Auvinen
  33. Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

    • Alicja Wolk
    •  & Niclas Håkansson
  34. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

    • Alicja Wolk
  35. Division of Cancer Sciences, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre and Christie NHS Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

    • Catharine M. L. West
  36. Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

    • Neil Burnet
  37. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA

    • Lorelei A. Mucci
    •  & Edward Giovannucci
  38. Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA

    • Gerald L. Andriole
    •  & Bettina F. Drake
  39. UPMC Sorbonne Universités, GRC no. 5 ONCOTYPE–URO, Tenon Hospital, Paris, France

    • Olivier Cussenot
    •  & Géraldine Cancel-Tassin
  40. CeRePP, Tenon Hospital, Paris, France

    • Olivier Cussenot
    •  & Géraldine Cancel-Tassin
  41. Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

    • Karina Dalsgaard Sorensen
    •  & Torben Falck Orntoft
  42. Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

    • Karina Dalsgaard Sorensen
    • , Torben Falck Orntoft
    •  & Michael Borre
  43. Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

    • Michael Borre
  44. Department of Medical Genetics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway

    • Lovise Maehle
    •  & Eli Marie Grindedal
  45. Department of Oncology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

    • David E. Neal
  46. Cancer Research UK, Cambridge Research Institute, Cambridge, UK

    • David E. Neal
  47. Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, Faculty of Medical Science, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

    • David E. Neal
    •  & Freddie C. Hamdy
  48. School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK

    • Jenny L. Donovan
    •  & Richard M. Martin
  49. Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

    • Ruth C. Travis
    •  & Tim J. Key
  50. Department of Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    • Robert J. Hamilton
    •  & Neil E. Fleshner
  51. Division of Urology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    • Antonio Finelli
  52. Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA

    • Barry S. Rosenstein
  53. Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA

    • Barry S. Rosenstein
  54. Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA

    • Sarah L. Kerns
  55. Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA

    • Harry Ostrer
  56. Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

    • Yong-Jie Lu
    •  & Xueying Mao
  57. Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China

    • Hong-Wei Zhang
  58. Wuxi Second Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, China

    • Ninghan Feng
  59. Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

    • Xin Guo
  60. Department of Urology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University Medical College, Shanghai, China

    • Guomin Wang
  61. People’s Hospital of Liaoning Province, People’s Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

    • Zan Sun
  62. Cancer Epidemiology and Intelligence Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

    • Graham G. Giles
    • , Robert J. MacInnis
    •  & Liesel M. FitzGerald
  63. Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

    • Graham G. Giles
    •  & Robert J. MacInnis
  64. Precision Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia

    • Melissa C. Southey
  65. Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

    • Liesel M. FitzGerald
  66. Division of Urologic Surgery, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

    • Adam S. Kibel
  67. Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica–SERGAS, Grupo de Medicina Xenómica, CIBERER, IDIS, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

    • Ana Vega
  68. Department of Radiation Oncology, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, SERGAS, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

    • Antonio Gómez-Caamaño
  69. Division of Family Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska, Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden

    • Robert Szulkin
  70. Scandinavian Development Services, Danderyd, Sweden

    • Robert Szulkin
  71. ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain

    • Manolis Kogevinas
    •  & Gemma Castaño-Vinyals
  72. CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain

    • Manolis Kogevinas
    • , Javier Llorca
    •  & Gemma Castaño-Vinyals
  73. IMIM (Hospital del Mar Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain

    • Manolis Kogevinas
    •  & Gemma Castaño-Vinyals
  74. Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain

    • Manolis Kogevinas
    •  & Gemma Castaño-Vinyals
  75. University of Cantabria–IDIVAL, Santander, Spain

    • Javier Llorca
  76. Department of Medicine, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

    • Kathryn L. Penney
    • , Meir Stampfer
    •  & Jing Ma
  77. Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA

    • Jong Y. Park
    •  & Thomas A. Sellers
  78. Biostatistics Program, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA

    • Hui-Yi Lin
  79. Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA

    • Janet L. Stanford
    • , Milan S. Geybels
    • , Daniel W. Lin
    •  & Lisa F. Newcomb
  80. Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

    • Janet L. Stanford
  81. International Hereditary Cancer Center, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland

    • Cezary Cybulski
    • , Dominika Wokolorczyk
    •  & Jan Lubinski
  82. National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

    • Elaine A. Ostrander
  83. Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

    • Børge G. Nordestgaard
    •  & Sune F. Nielsen
  84. Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark

    • Børge G. Nordestgaard
    • , Sune F. Nielsen
    •  & Maren Weischer
  85. Department of Urology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark

    • Rasmus Bisbjerg
  86. Copenhagen Prostate Cancer Center, Department of Urology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

    • Martin Andreas Røder
    •  & Peter Iversen
  87. Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

    • Hermann Brenner
    •  & Katarina Cuk
  88. German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

    • Hermann Brenner
  89. Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg, Germany

    • Hermann Brenner
  90. Saarland Cancer Registry, Saarbrücken, Germany

    • Bernd Holleczek
  91. Institute for Human Genetics, University Hospital Ulm, Ulm, Germany

    • Christiane Maier
    •  & Manuel Luedeke
  92. Department of Urology, University Hospital Ulm, Ulm, Germany

    • Thomas Schnoeller
  93. Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas–MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA

    • Jeri Kim
    •  & Christopher J. Logothetis
  94. Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, CA, USA

    • Esther M. John
  95. Department of Health Research & Policy (Epidemiology) and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA

    • Esther M. John
  96. Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal

    • Manuel R. Teixeira
    • , Paula Paulo
    •  & Marta Cardoso
  97. Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

    • Manuel R. Teixeira
  98. Department of Population Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA

    • Susan L. Neuhausen
    • , Linda Steele
    •  & Yuan Chun Ding
  99. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

    • Kim De Ruyck
    •  & Gert De Meerleer
  100. Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

    • Piet Ost
  101. Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    • Azad Razack
    •  & Jasmine Lim
  102. Cancer Research Malaysia (CRM), Outpatient Centre, Subang Jaya Medical Centre, Selangor, Malaysia

    • Soo-Hwang Teo
  103. Department of Urology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

    • Daniel W. Lin
    •  & Lisa F. Newcomb
  104. Institute of Human Genetics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

    • Davor Lessel
  105. Department of Oncology, Division of Medical Oncology, Urogenital Unit, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

    • Marija Gamulin
  106. Department of Urology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia

    • Tomislav Kulis
  107. Molecular Medicine Center, Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

    • Radka Kaneva
    •  & Vanio Mitev
  108. Department of Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

    • Nawaid Usmani
    • , Sandeep Singhal
    •  & Matthew Parliament
  109. Division of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

    • Nawaid Usmani
    • , Sandeep Singhal
    •  & Matthew Parliament
  110. Department of Urology and Alexandrovska University Hospital, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

    • Chavdar Slavov
  111. Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

    • Frank Claessens
    •  & Thomas Van den Broeck
  112. Department of Urology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

    • Steven Joniau
    •  & Thomas Van den Broeck
  113. University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK

    • Samantha Larkin
  114. Division of Cancer Sciences, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Center, NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre, Health Innovation Manchester, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

    • Paul A. Townsend
  115. University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK

    • Claire Aukim-Hastie
    • , Hardev Pandha
    •  & Agnieszka Michael
  116. Genomic Medicine Group, Galician Foundation of Genomic Medicine, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Servicio Galego de Saúde, SERGAS, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

    • Manuela Gago-Dominguez
  117. Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

    • Manuela Gago-Dominguez
  118. Genetic Oncology Unit, CHUVI Hospital, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica Galicia Sur (IISGS), Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, Vigo, Spain

    • Jose Esteban Castelao
  119. Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

    • Maria Elena Martinez
  120. Department of Urology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    • Monique J. Roobol
    •  & Guido Jenster
  121. Department of Clinical Chemistry, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    • Ron H. N. van Schaik
  122. Cancer & Environment Group, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), INSERM, University Paris-Sud, University Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France

    • Florence Menegaux
    • , Thérèse Truong
    •  & Yves Akoli Koudou
  123. Program for Personalized Cancer Care, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, USA

    • Jianfeng Xu
  124. Clinical Gerontology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

    • Kay-Tee Khaw
  125. Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA

    • Lisa Cannon-Albright
  126. George E. Wahlen Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT, USA

    • Lisa Cannon-Albright
  127. Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

    • Stephen N. Thibodeau
  128. Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

    • Shannon K. McDonnell
    •  & Daniel J. Schaid
  129. Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

    • Sara Lindstrom
  130. Program in Genetic Epidemiology and Statistical Genetics, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA

    • Constance Turman
    • , David J. Hunter
    •  & Peter Kraft
  131. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK

    • Elio Riboli
  132. Genomics England, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

    • Afshan Siddiq
  133. Genomic Epidemiology Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

    • Federico Canzian
  134. Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI, USA

    • Laurence N. Kolonel
    •  & Loic Le Marchand
  135. Department of Biomedical Data Science, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, USA

    • Christopher I. Amos
  136. Department of Molecular and Systems Biology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA

    • Christopher I. Amos
  137. Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, USA

    • Christopher I. Amos
  138. Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

    • Rosalind A. Eeles


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  1. The Profile Study

    1. Australian Prostate Cancer BioResource (APCB)

      1. The IMPACT Study

        1. Canary PASS Investigators

          1. Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

            1. The PRACTICAL (Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer-Associated Alterations in the Genome) Consortium

              1. Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS)

                1. Prostate Cancer Genome-wide Association Study of Uncommon Susceptibility Loci (PEGASUS)

                  1. The Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology (GAME-ON)/Elucidating Loci Involved in Prostate Cancer Susceptibility (ELLIPSE) Consortium


                    Writing group: F.R.S., C.A.H., D.V.C., A.A.A.O., S.I.B., M. Ahmed, Z.S.K.-J., and R.A.E. Conception and coordination of OncoArray synthesis: F.R.S., C.I.A., D.F.E., S.J.C., C.A.H., B.E.H., and F.W. Database management: S.B., M.N.B., X.S., K.M., and A.L. Bioinformatics support: E.J.S., T.D., D. Leongamornlert, E.A., C.C.-B., and C.G. Genotyping calling and QC: L.F., J.D., and J.T. Provision of DNA samples and/or phenotypic data: V.L.S., S.M.G., B.D.C., C.M.T., P.J.G., I.M.T., J.B., S.C., L. Moya, J.C., L.H., W.T., G.P.R., H.G., M. Aly, T.N., P. Pharoah, N.P., J.S., T.L.J.T., C. Slavov, A.A., D.A., S.W., A.W., N.H., C.M.L.W., A.M.D., N.B., L.A.M., E.G., G.L.A., O.C.,G.C.T., S.K., L.E.B.F., K.D.S., T.F.O., M.B., L. Maehle, E.M.G., D.E.N., J.L.D., F.C.H., R.M.M., R.C.T., T.J.K., R.J.H., N.E.F., A.F., S.A.I., M.C. Stern, B.S.R., S.L.K., H.O., Y.-J.L., H.-W.Z., N.F., X.M., X.G., G.W., Z.S., G.G.G., M.C. Southey, R.J.M., L.M.F., A.S.K., B.M.K., J. Lubinski, G.C.-V., K.L.P., M.S., J.Y.P., T.A.S., H.-Y.L., J.L.S., C.C., D.W., J. Lim, E.A.O., M.S.G., B.G.N., S.F.N., M.W., R.B., M.A.R., P.I., H.B., K.C., B.H.,C.M., M.L., T.S., J.K., C.J.L., E.M.J., M.R.T., P. Paulo, M.C., S.L.N., L.S., Y.C.D., K.D.R., G.D.M., P.O., A.R., J. Llorca, S.-H.T., D.W.L., L.F.N., D. Lessel, M.G., T.K., R.K., N.U., S.S., C. Sipeky, V.M., M.P., F. Canzian, S.J., T.V.d.B., S. Larkin, P.A.T., C.A.H., M.G.D., J.E.C., M.E.M., M.J.R., G.J., R.H.N.v.S., F.M., T.T., Y.A.K., J.X., K.-T.K., L.C.-A., H.P., A.M., S.N.T., S.K.M., D.J.S., S. Lindstrom, C.T., J.M., D.J.H., E.R., A.S., F. Claessens, L.N.K., L.L.M., R.N.H., M.J.M., Z.C., P.K., F.W., S.J.C., B.E.H., C.A.-H., R.A.E., A.V., A.G.-C., B.F.D., G.C.-T., APCB investigators, IMPACT Study, Canary PASS investigators, BPC3, PRACTICAL, CAPS, PEGASUS, GAME-ON/ELLIPSE, and Profile Study Steering Committee. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

                    Competing interests

                    The authors declare no competing interests.

                    Corresponding authors

                    Correspondence to Fredrick R. Schumacher or Ali Amin Al Olama or Rosalind A. Eeles.

                    Supplementary information

                    1. Supplementary Text and Figures

                      Supplementary Figures 1–6, Supplementary Tables 1–19 and Supplementary Note

                    2. Reporting Summary

                    About this article

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