Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • Correspondence
  • Published:

Effects of the first successful lawsuit against a consumer neurotechnology company for violating brain data privacy

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy this article

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout


  1. Supreme Court of Chile. Girardi v. Emotiv (sentence 105.065-2023, page 217.225-2023) (2023);

  2. Ministry of the General Secretariat of the Presidency of Chile. Political Constitution of the Republic of Chile (1980).

  3. Emotiv. Insight: 5-channel wireless EEG headset. (accessed 10 February 2024).

  4. Ienca, M. et al. Neuroethics 15, 20 (2022).

  5. European Union. Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Off. J. Eur. Union (2012).

  6. Ienca, M. & Andorno, R. Life Sci. Soc. Policy 13, 5 (2017).

  7. Lavazza, A. & Giorgi, R. Neuroethics 16, 10 (2023).

  8. Muñoz, J. M. & Marinaro, J. Á. Front. Polit. Sci. 5, 1322922 (2023).

  9. Ministry of Science, Technology, Knowledge, and Innovation of Chile. Modifies the Carta Magna, to put scientific and technological development at the service of people (Law No. 21.383). Off. J. Republic Chile (2021).

  10. Yuste, R. et al. Nature 551, 159–163 (2017).

  11. Farahany, N. A. The Battle for Your Brain: Defending the Right to Think Freely in the Age of Neurotechnology (St. Martin’s Press, 2023).

  12. Muñoz, J. M. Science 379, 1097 (2023).

  13. Edler, J. et al. Res. Policy 52, 104765 (2023).

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to José M. Muñoz.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

J.M.M., J.A.M. and J.A.I. were pro-plaintiff amicus brief contributors in the Girardi v. Emotiv lawsuit. M.S., N.M. and C.C. were part of the plaintiff’s team of lawyers and legal advisers. G.G. was the plaintiff.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Muñoz, J.M., Marinaro, J.Á., Iglesias, J.A. et al. Effects of the first successful lawsuit against a consumer neurotechnology company for violating brain data privacy. Nat Biotechnol 42, 1015–1016 (2024).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing: Translational Research

Sign up for the Nature Briefing: Translational Research newsletter — top stories in biotechnology, drug discovery and pharma.

Get what matters in translational research, free to your inbox weekly. Sign up for Nature Briefing: Translational Research